Arab Sat Booklet in English


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Arab Sat Booklet in English

  1. 1. 2008 2005 2000 1990 1985 Thirty Years of Arabsat 1980 Creating the largest Arab community in the sky 1976
  2. 2. “After over 30 years, the Arabsat world now covers over 164 million viewers in over 80 countries across the Middle East, Africa, Europe and far beyond, creating the largest Arab community in the sky and connecting Arab nations with each other and the rest of the world through state-of- the-art technology ”
  3. 3. Over 30 Years of Connecting the Arab World Arabsat has been connecting the Arabsat has been an Arab-operated entity, managed and Arab world for over 30 years, and operated by highly-qualified and experienced professionals we are proud to have been a part of composed of Arab nationals. this journey for all these This Arab team has overcome challenges, seized remarkable years. opportunities and led in innovation to achieve tremendous During this time, Arabsat has built business success. Since our founding, Arabsat has generated an unparalleled reputation for rewarding returns for its member countries. Over the years, pioneering satellite communica- we have also managed to distribute dividends to our tion services in the region. shareholders worth US$160 million—an amount almost equal to our initial capital. This and other achievements Indeed, Arabsat was the first to bring digital broadcast show that Arabsat has successfully achieved all the goals set technology to the region, letting viewers enjoy more of their forth by the Board of Directors after it was established by the favorite shows at far better quality—for less. In the process, Arab League in 1976. we helped transform satellite TV into a potent tool for promoting economic, social, cultural and political progress in Along the way, not only has Arabsat succeeded in our part of the world. becoming the leading satellite operator in the Arab world. We have also become a role model for Arab cooperation, Today, every country in our neighborhood has established a successfully uniting our common goals and interests and presence on the satellite broadcasting map. Arabsat was also linking Arabs not only in our neighborhood but virtually the first to bring satellite-based Internet services in the region everywhere in the world. in 1999, positioning the Arab world for the Information Age and drawing a growing Arab neighborhood closer than ever The future is filled with many challenges. To maintain our with unprecedented connectivity. success and leadership, we will need to move forward with the same commitment which powered our growth through Even as Arabsat services grew, so did our commitment to the years. With increasing competition, we need to grow into a true Arab entity. From our earliest days, the constantly stay ahead of the pack with vision and a solid management of Arabsat—represented by the General strategy for the future. Assembly and the Board of Directors—has placed a high priority on developing Arab expertise. Through constant training, Arabsat has succeeded in developing a truly world Fareed Khashoggi class Arab team. Indeed, since 1988, we are proud to say that Chairman, Arabsat The Arabsat Journey | page 2
  4. 4. “Arabsat has been connecting the Arab world for over 30 years, and I’m proud to have been a part of this journey for 15 of these remarkable years”
  5. 5. Building the largest Arab community in the sky Since this distinguished Arab also calls for greater diversification through investments in organization was founded, a telecommunications and strategic partnerships with giant number of exceptional individu- operators in the region and internationally. als—the best Arab minds in telecommunications—have had the By the grace of God, in 2006 and 2008 we successfully honor of managing Arabsat. Wheth- launched the 4th Generation of Arabsat satellites—named er as a member of the Board of Badr 4 and Badr 6—and positioned them at the Arabsat Directors or the Executive Body, orbital hotspot of 26º East. Today, Arabsat is recognized as the these remarkable individuals, with top satellite operator in the Middle East and the southern God’s help, shaped Arabsat’s Mediterranean, and ranks 9th in the world. The First success through the years. They were there from the earliest Secretary of the Arab League also recently applauded Arabsat days when the challenges were forbidding, the resources for being a leader and a catalyst for Arab media collaboration. meager and the options limited. For over thirty years, they With God’s grace, we are preparing to launch four more new stood by Arabsat, steering the fledging organization through satellites, one each year from 2009 to 2012. Three of them difficult times and finally leading it into safety until it grew will form part of the Arabsat 5th Generation while one of into what it is today: a successful model of Arab cooperation. them will be the first of our 6th Generation satellites. These When I was honored with the presidency of Arabsat in 2003, I new satellites will allow us to expand our coverage, an ever- and my fellow members in the Executive Body had one main expanding reach which now covers the entire African goal: to continue these great accomplishments and build a continent and huge swathes of Asia and Europe. totally independent institution. Our vision was to put in place I thank God Almighty first and foremost, as well as the whole a modern and self-sufficient satellite fleet, complete with in- Arabsat family, for Arabsat’s success. By constantly orbit backup, that would allow Arabsat to fulfill present upgrading our satellite fleet and operating them with the finest demand, provide greater capacity—and ensure future demand team of Arab experts, engineers and managers at our without the need to rent satellites from other operators. headquarters and ground facilities in Riyadh and Tunisia, Thus did we start restructuring this organization, carefully Arabsat is committed to continue this successful journey and laying down strategic plans to help us stay nimble in the maintain its leading position in the regional and global marketplace and become a potent competitor in the interna- market. This distinguished team is Arabsat’s most important tional arena. Consequently, we have expanded our business investment. We thank them and appreciate their hard work presence with new offices in Dubai and Cairo as well as a and dedication as they rise to the challenge of fulfilling our representative office in Paris serving our customers in that greatest ambitious. May God Almighty bless them. part of the world. We have also forged partnerships with the media cities of Dubai and Jordan and, in collaboration with NileSat, established an extension office at the Egyptian Media Khalid Balkheyour Production City. We are presently exploring similar partner- President & CEO ships in northwestern Africa, Iraq and Lebanon. Our strategy The Arabsat Journey | page 4
  6. 6. “We have carefully laid out strategic plans for the short and long term designed to help us stay nimble in the marketplace and and become a potent competitor in the international arena”
  7. 7. The Arabsat World The Arab world is defined as that long swathe of Arabic- The beginning speaking lands stretching from North Africa in the east to Arabsat was officially founded in 1976 by the 21 member the Arabian Gulf in the west, a vast neighborhood states of the Arab League, but Arabsat’s beginnings straddling two continents and 25 countries with a actually go back many years earlier when the world first combined population of 325 million people. It’s a world awoke to the potential of space. so different yet so alike, a vibrant world which speaks Arabic for the most part with its many local flavors and In 1967, as the race for space captured the world’s dialects, but also French, Berber, Somali, Kurdish and imagination, the Arab world held a landmark conference at many other tongues, all sharing a lively assortment of the picturesque old port of Bizerte in Tunisia. Ministers of distinct yet related cultural traditions and tastes. culture and information from Arab countries gathered and pondered the future, laying down the first blue prints for a Today, thanks to Arabsat’s pioneering spirit and Pan-Arab satellite system to connect the Arab world. The continuous investments in the latest satellite technology, conference set a vision for establishing a space-based system this neighborhood has grown far beyond its original using emerging satellite technology to support the borders. After over 30 years, the Arabsat world now information, cultural and education needs of Arab countries. covers over 164 million viewers across the Middle East, Africa, Europe—and far beyond. And today, Arabsat has The stage was set. In less than a decade, Arab grown into one of the world’s leading satellite operators commitment to harness the emerging potential of satellite and the largest, most successful satellite operator in the technology became reality. In 1976, the 21 member states Arab world, by far. of the Arab League of Nations signed an agreement formally establishing the Arab Satellite Communications Organization to be based in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Arabsat Journey | page 6
  8. 8. 1967 In 1967, the Arab world held a landmark conference to lay down the first blue prints for a Pan-Arab satellite system to cover the Arab world using emerging satellite technology
  9. 9. Initially known by its acronym ASCO, it has since Work on Arabsat’s first satellites started in earnest. In the become more popularly known as Arabsat. The agreement early 1980s Arabsat collaborated with an international team laid down the first steps towards designing, executing and led by Aerospatiale of France to design and manufacture operating the first Arab space-based system of its kind. Its the first generation of Arabsat satellites, a fleet of three goal: to serve the needs of telecommunications, identical state-of-the-art satellites. Arabsat also signed a information, culture and education sectors of the Arab contract with EADS Astrium Arianespace and NASA in the world through satellite-based services matching the United States to place the satellites into orbit. highest international standards. Perhaps just as importantly, Arabsat started working on infrastructure to control and manage its satellites from the ground. Arabsat turned to Nippon Electric of Japan to design The Countdown Begins: and build two terrestrial stations: a main control and Laying the groundwork for the first Arab broadcasting facility in Riyadh in Saudi Arabia, and a backup community in the sky control facility in Tunisia, both to be delivered in time for the When the Arab League established Arabsat in 1976, it scheduled launch of Arabsat’s first satellite in 1985. was only the first of many steps in Arabsat’s long journey into space. The next few years were spent laying down Now, all the pieces were in place and the final countdown the groundwork for designing, funding and executing the to space had begun. The first Arab satellite system, first first Pan-Arab satellite system. conceived some two decades earlier, was finally ready to lift off the ground—and into history. The Arabsat Journey | page 8
  10. 10. 1976 In 1976, the 21 member states of the Arab League of Nations signed an agreement formally establishing the Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Arabsat) to be based in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  11. 11. Liftoff: Arabsat in Space In the early morning of February 8, 1985 somewhere in Recently, Arabsat signed two more contracts for two new the Central American jungles of French Guiana at satellites. One of them represents the final addition to Arianespace’s Guiana Space Center, the latest heavy-lift Arabsat’s 5th Generation satellites, while the second will Ariane 3 launcher with its distinctive twin solid propellant be the first of Arabsat’s 6th Generation scheduled for strap-on boosters blasted off with a state-of-the-art 1.27- launch in 2011 and 2012. ton payload: Arabsat 1A, the first Arabsat satellite. Finally, Arabsat was in space. Within a few months, after successfully completing all in-orbit tests, Arabsat officially Arabsat: The First Generation started commercial operations on August 22, 1985. The first generation of Arabsat satellites were state-of-the- This marked the beginning of decades of continuous art for their time. They included three satellites which growth as Arabsat followed its first generation satellites were the first to feature new technology from with a second generation, a third generation and most Aerospatiale, each carrying two S-band transponders and recently, a fourth generation—a total of 9 satellites over the 25 C-band transponders. They had a nominal design life years. Every generation was always an improvement on the of 7 years in orbit. previous, a continuous process of upgrades and advancement, of widening reach and increasing capability. The first Arabsat satellite, Arabsat 1A, was launched atop an Ariane 3 launcher from the Arianespace launch site in Today, the Arabsat satellite fleet at the 26º East and 30.5º French Guiana on February 8, 1985. Arabsat 1B, the East orbital positions is the youngest and most capable fleet second satellite in the series, was launched aboard the of satellites covering the Arab world. And with the 5th Space Shuttle Discovery in June 1985, just a few months generation Arabsat satellites launching in late 2009 plus after Arabsat 1A. one new satellite going to space until 2010, Arabsat has grown from a mere vision into one of the world’s largest Fully aware of the significance of launching the second satellite operators and, by far, the largest satellite operator Arab satellite into space, NASA assembled a seven- in the Arab world. member international crew for the Space Shuttle which The Arabsat Journey | page 10
  12. 12. 1985 Arabsat 1B, the second satellite in the first generation of Arabsat satellites, was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery with the first Arab Astronaut on board.
  13. 13. Canada in 1993 and leased its Anik D2 C-band satellite. The satellite, a Hughes HS-376 bus carrying 24 active C- band transponders, was repositioned from 82º West to 20º East and renamed Arabsat 1D. The fourth and final satellite in the first generation of Arabsat satellites, Arabsat 1D was also a temporary solution because by then, mindful of rising demand, Arabsat already had its sights on a much more capable second-generation of Arabsat satellites. Arabsat: The Second Generation Arabsat shopped around for a successor to its first- generation satellites as early as 1990 and seriously considered proposals from Hughes Aerospace, Aerospatiale and British Aerospace. Arabsat awarded the US$257.9 million contract to Aerospatiale on April 17, 1993. Once again, Arabsat continued its pioneering tradition. It became the first satellite operator to take advantage of the new and much more capable Spacebus 3000A platform. This platform was designed to pack 22 C-band transponders plus included a young Saudi prince acting as the mission’s 12 Ku-band transponders. Each of these densely-packed payload specialist. The Saudi prince was of course none birds weighed over two metric tons on station. other than Prince Sultan bin Salman, son of the governor of Riyadh, grandson of the Kingdom’s founder, and the In July 1996, Arabsat 2A finally blasted into space from first Arab astronaut in space. As the mission’s payload the Guiana Space Center on an Ariane 4 launch vehicle, specialist, Prince Sultan did the honor of launching then opening a new era for Arab satellite services. The new deploying Arabsat’s second satellite into orbit, a historic Arabsat 2A offered enhanced Direct-to-Home television event which continues to inspire young Arabs to this day. services and capability for creating private networks for voice and data using Very Small Aperture Terminals or Arabsat 1B remained in operation for all its 7-year design VSAT. VSATs use satellites to connect a mesh of small life, dramatically transforming broadcast and remote earth stations or terminals, usually for point-of- telecommunications services in the Arab world. It was sale transactions such as credit card transactions, soon followed by yet another and third satellite in the broadband data for remote locations or communications series, Arabsat 1C, which was launched aboard an Ariane on the move such as maritime communications. rocket in February 1992. Arabsat 2B was initially intended as a ground spare. But By then, demand for Arabsat satellite services had grown with demand rising and to maintain its multi-satellite significantly, mostly for video services. To meet excess network, Arabsat decided to launch Arabsat 2B on demand and provide bridge capacity while Arabsat November 13, 1996 just as Arabsat 1C neared the end of prepared to upgrade its fleet, Arabsat turned to Telesat its service life. The Arabsat Journey | page 12
  14. 14. 1999 Arabsat 3A was launched on February 26, 1999 on an Ariane 4 rocket and joined Arabsat 2A in the same orbital position, adding more capacity to its growing Arab neighborhood in the sky at 26º East Arabsat’s second-generation satellites were vastly ahead of Arabsat 3A was launched on February 26, 1999 on an their predecessors. To adapt to their new systems and Ariane 4 rocket and joined Arabsat 2A in the same orbital enhanced capabilities, Arabsat’s ground control facilities in position, adding more capacity to its growing Arab Saudi Arabia and Tunisia underwent significant upgrades. neighborhood in the sky at 26º East. On December 7, By then, a new generation of highly-trained Arab engineers 2001, barely 3 years into its 13-year design life, disaster had completely taken over the operations of Arabsat’s two struck. A short-circuit in the solar array mechanism ground stations, hitherto run by foreign experts since stopped the flow of power from one of Arabsat 3A’s solar January 1988. panels, cutting power by half to the rest of the satellite. Eight of the 20 transponders on Arabsat 3A failed. Arabsat: The Third Generation Ground controllers harnessed power from the remaining solar panel, which was functioning normally, as well as Even while preparing to launch Arabsat 2B, Arabsat was from alternative power supplies, and reallocated already making plans for even more capable satellites. On frequencies to restore broadcast power to some of the November 7, 1996, just a week before launching Arabsat transponders. Arabsat also quickly moved to maintain 2B, Arabsat contracted Alcatel Space Industries to provide capacity by acquiring two additional satellites which were the first of two third-generation Arabsat satellites. These already in orbit, Panamsat 5 and Hotbird 5. Panamsat 5 would be direct TV broadcast satellites with a design life of was renamed as Arabsat 2C while Hotbird 5 was renamed 13 years, providing a powerful addition to Arabsat’s as Arabsat 2D. growing fleet and helping it meet its long-term needs.
  15. 15. The New Generation of Arabsat Satellites Arabsat: The Fourth Generation provide 28 active Ku-band channels. Both satellites were based on the Astrium 2000+ platform with a launch mass of In October 2003, Arabsat signed a contract with EADS some 3.3 tons each and a 15-year design lifespan. Astrium to build the fourth generation of Arabsat satel- lites—Arabsat’s most capable generation of satellites yet. It Badr 1, technically known as Arabsat 4A, lifted off two was borne of a vision to ensure Arabsat’s continued hours after midnight on February 28, 2006 atop a Proton-M leadership by launching a new era of wider reach and Breeze-M launch vehicle at the Baikonur space center in unprecedented choice for broadcast, telecom and broadband Russia. Shortly after lift-off, the satellite failed to reach its operators in the region. planned orbit. and several options were explored to rescue the satellite. But on March 24, 2006, Arabsat finally Arabsat prepared to meet this new era with a new and declared the satellite lost and decided to deorbit it over the modern image reflecting its leading-edge spirit and Pacific Ocean. pioneering heritage. Shedding its old logo, Arabsat launched a new and modern graphic identity to accompany it into the To quickly close the capacity gap, Arabsat successfully future. It also chose a new name for its new generation of launched another satellite—Badr 4, technically called Arabsat satellites: Badr, literally “Full Moon” in Arabic. 4B—on November 8, 2006. The satellite was optimized as a multi-purpose communications satellite with a vastly Meanwhile, construction of Arabsat’s new Badr satellites expanded footprint covering the Arab world and neighboring was proceeding in earnest. As prime contractor, EADS regions. Badr 4’s Ku-band payload offered enhanced capacity Astrium designed and built the satellite and upgraded the and unprecedented flexibility for direct-to-home, interactive Arabsat ground control centers in Dirab in Saudi Arabia and TV and Internet broadband services. It also came with its backup control facility in Tunisia. additional capacity to accommodate anticipated demand for high-definition TV. This was a smart, forward-looking strategy Badr 1, the first in the series, was designed to carry 24 which positioned Arabsat at the forefront of the emerging active C-band channels and 16 active Ku-band channels. HDTV market in the region, a position it continues to enjoy. Badr 4, the second satellite in the series, was designed to At the same time, Arabsat immediately ordered a replace- The Arabsat Journey | page 14
  16. 16. 2006 The fourth generation of Arabsat satellites—Arabsat’s most capable generation of satellites yet—launched a new era of wider reach and unprecedented choice for broadcast, telecom and broadband operators across the Arab world
  17. 17. ment for the lost Badr 1 spacecraft from Astrium. But even Arabsat: The Fifth Generation while the order was being placed, Arabsat was already laying down plans for a fifth-generation of Arabsat satellites Already far and away the leading satellite operator in the Arab which were to be called Badr 5. For this reason, the world, Arabsat nevertheless stayed committed to staying replacement satellite skipped the “5” designation and was ahead of demand and emerging trends. Thus, even with the dubbed Badr 6. It became the third satellite in Arabsat’s youngest fleet of state-of-the-art satellites in the heavens—and 4th-generation series. long before Badr 6 left the ground—Arabsat was already planning for yet more capable additions to its fleet. These new Badr 6 was successfully launched from the Guiana Space satellites would be called Arabsat’s fifth generation, and on Center on July 6, 2008 using an Ariane 5-ECA launch vehicle June 16, 2007, Arabsat signed a contract with EADS Astrium and immediately joined the Arabsat fleet at the 26º East and Thales Alenia Space to start building them. geostationary orbital position. Its main communications payload was integrated on a Eurostar E2000+ platform with The fifth generation of Arabsat satellites are already in 20 Ku-band/BSS transponders for broadcast services plus 24 various stages of assembly and will be launched at a rate of C-band transponders offering an extended range of telecom- one satellite a year starting from late 2009 to 2010. As the munications services. On August 7, 2008, after successfully leading partner, Astrium is supplying the platforms and will passing all tests, Badr 6 was officially handed over to integrate the satellites. Thales Alenia Space will design and Arabsat. build the communications payloads. The Arabsat Journey | page 16
  18. 18. expected boom of HDTV and, thanks to its Ka-band capacity, the development of sophisticated interactive services in the rapidly expanding Arabsat world. Yet a third fifth generation satellite is already in the works. A contract to build the new satellite was signed in February 4, 2009, with launch planned for late 2011. It has been designated as Arabsat 5C and will add a third orbital position in the sky for Arabsat at 20º East of the geostation- ary orbit. Arabsat 5C will share the same platform as its first two cousins in the fifth generation series which were designed as Eurostar E3000 models. It will provide expanded capacity with 26 active C-band and 12 Ka-band transponders, and comes with a service lifespan in excess of To manage the extended Arabsat fleet and take advantage of 15 years. the new systems on board, the team will also upgrade Arabsat’s ground control facilities in Saudi Arabia and Tuni- Even as Arabsat’s fifth generation satellites are being sia, the third time that Arabsat’s ground control facilities prepared for their journey into space, Arabsat is already have been modernized to keep up with the latest technology. planning for more new-generation satellites to expand its constellation in the skies. In February 4, 2009, Arabsat also The first satellite in the series is intended as a replacement appointed the consortium of Astrium and Thales Alenia for Arabsat 2B at 30.5º East and will thus follow its naming Space to build yet another Arabsat satellite planned for a scheme: Arabsat 5A. Weighing in at almost 5 tons, the 2012 launch, a year after the launch of Arabsat 5C. The new multi-purpose satellite will provide additional capacity for a satellite, the first of Arabsat’s 6th Generation satellite and to wide range of communications services. It is based on a be named Badr 7, will join Arabsat’s constellation of direct- Eurostar E3000 platform with a 15-year service lifetime. to-home Badr satellites at its 26º East video hotspot, vastly Packed with 16 active C-band transponders and 24 Ku-band extending in-orbit capacity for Arabsat not only in the Arab transponders, Arabsat 5A will significantly boost Arabsat world but also far beyond into Europe and Asia, now part of capacity to provide a wide range of satellite communica- the growing Arabsat neighborhood in the sky. tions services from TV broadcasts and telephony to business communications, Internet trunking, VSAT and other interactive services over an area which now covers the Middle East and all of Africa—and beyond. The second satellite in the series will join Arabsat’s fleet of direct-to-home Badr satellites at 26º East and will sport the name Badr 5. Also a Eurostar E3000 model, Badr 5 (technically known as Arabsat 5B) will be heavier than Arabsat 5A at almost 5.5 tons and is designed with a 15- year service lifetime. Equipped with 56 active transponders 2012 in Ku-Band and Ka-band, Badr 5 will primarily provide full As Arabsat’s fifth generation satellites are in-orbit backup capacity for Badr 4 and Badr 6 television being readied for launch, Arabsat is already services. Complementary missions include supporting the planning for more new-generation satellites
  19. 19. Profiting From Space: A Role Model for Arab Collaboration Arabsat’s phenomenal success through the years has established formula: 5 from member countries with the become a role model for Arab collaboration. Fraught with highest stakeholding in the company, 2 from member early challenges, burdened by early losses and hobbled by countries which posted the highest usage during the the loss of two satellites, Arabsat has nevertheless previous year and 2 board members from countries which mustered remarkable resilience, strategic foresight and best met their financial obligations. The Board of faith in its vision to overcome every obstacle and emerge Directors meet up to four times each year. as a modern success story. Finally, to handle the operational, administrative, Established as an intergovernment organization in 1976 financial and technical management of the company, by the countries of the Arab League, Arabsat represented Arabsat has a Management Committee headed by an the common hopes and aspirations of the Arab world at Executive Director and assisted by a full team of highly the birth of the space age. It is the collaborative efforts of qualified experts. 21 Arab League countries. The largest contributor is Saudi Arabia at 36.66 percent. This is followed by Kuwait An Arab success story (14.59 percent), Libya (11.28 percent), Qatar (9.81 Over the years, Arabsat has realized phenomenal profits percent) and the U.A.E. (4.66 percent). Together, these of 450% and has paid out dividends almost equal the five largest contributors account for 77 percent of Arabsat. original paid-up capital of Arabsat. But these profits did not come the easy way. Over its 30-year existence, Management Structure Arabsat has faced serious challenges and endured initial losses. During its first full decade of commercial Arabsat is governed by three bodies composed of the operations from 1977 to 1987, Arabsat posted an income General Assembly, the Board of Directors and the of US$10.5 million. However, suffering a satellite loss, Management Committee. In April or May of each year, the next 5 years saw its profits drop, hitting rock-bottom Arabsat holds an annual General Assembly attended by in 1992 with losses of US$44.7 million. Arab telecommunications ministers representing member countries. During the General Assembly, 9 members of From 1993 to 1995, with its own Arabsat 1C satellite in the Arabsat Board of Directors are selected based on a The Arabsat Journey | page 18
  20. 20. 450% Profits Over the years, Arabsat has realized phenomenal profits of 450% and has paid out dividends almost equal its original paid-up capital
  21. 21. space joining a fleet of leased satellites over the Arab Inspired by its success and continued strong performance, skies, Arabsat went back to profitability and posted a Arabsat member countries voted during its 31st General US$10.4 million income. Since then, as Arabsat launched Assembly in 2008 to raise Arabsat’s paid-up capital to newer and more capable generations of Arabsat satellites, US$500 million from US$163 million. This substantial Arabsat has continued on a path of strong profitability, increase reflects the high confidence Arabsat has inspired racking up a total of US$734 million in income from among its member countries and is an eloquent measure 1996 to 2007. In all, Arabsat has delivered returns equal of the success and continuing strength of this 30-year role to 450% of its US$163 million capital. model for Arab collaboration. The Arabsat Journey | page 20
  22. 22. R e v e n u e T a b l e s The Arabsat Journey | page 22
  23. 23. Arabsat General Assembly through the Years Year Country Round Host City 1978 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia First Taif 1979 Tunisia Second Tunisia 1980 Morocco Third Rabat 1981 Jordan Fourth Amman 1982 Yemen Fifth Sana’a 1983 Kuwait Sixeth Kuwait 1984 Jordan Seventh Amman 1985 Morocco Eight Rabat 1986 Algeria Nineth Algeria 1987 Libya Tenth Trippoli 1988 Syria Eleventh Damascus 1989 Oman Twelveth Muscat 1990 Algeria Therteenth Algeria 1991 Egypt Fourteenth Cairo 1992 Egypt Fifteenth Cairo 1993 Tunisia Sixteenth Tunisia 1994 Morocco Seventeenth Rabat 1995 Egypt Eighteenth Cairo 1996 Egypt Ninteenth Cairo 1997 Jordan Twentyth Amman 1998 Lebanon Twenty First Beirut 1999 Jordan Twenty Second Amman 2000 Qatar Twenty Third Doha 2001 Mauritania Twenty Fourth Nwakshot 2002 Qatar Twenty Fifth Doha 2003 Lebanon Twenty Sixeth Beirut 2004 Qatar Twenty Seventh Doha 2005 Morocco Twenty Eight Marrakech 2006 Oman Twenty Nineth Muscat 2007 Syria Thirtyth Damascus