The competitive development of nationa economies

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The competitive development of nationa economies

  1. 1. The competitive development of national economies By: Amal Abu Raslan
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>General Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Porter’s Framework ( Ex: MEA) </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study: KSA </li></ul><ul><li>Other Authors Frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Planning for Economic Development </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study: Nokia </li></ul><ul><li>Planning stages of economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study: Lebanon </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Like industries, national economies evolve and develop and change the countries conditions </li></ul><ul><li>With this economic upgrade comes the more complicated competitive advantages which leads to more investments and evolution of the industries too. </li></ul><ul><li>Porter tends to divide the economies of nations into four stages that we will be discussing </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Theory <ul><li>The primary role of a nation is to provide ‘home base’ to a firm. </li></ul><ul><li>Home base is the nation in which the essential competitive advantages are created and sustained. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually home base will be the location of most productive jobs, core technologies and the most advanced skills. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Theory cont’d <ul><li>Michael Porter* describes four keys to a nation’s competitive advantage in relation to other countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor Endowments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related and supporting industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Popularly referred to as “Porter’s Diamond” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Porter’s Diamond Determinants of National Competitive Advantage Government Chance Combined Impact Combined Impact Factor Endowments Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry Demand Conditions Related and Supporting Industries
  7. 7. Porter Competitive Model: MEA Lebanon Intra-Industry Rivalry SBU: MEA Network (traditional) Rivals: MEA Low-cost Rivals: MenaJet, NAS, etc..) Bargaining Power of Buyers Bargaining Power of Suppliers Substitute Products and Services Potential New Entrants Airline Industry Analysis- Middle East Market <ul><li>Travel Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Business Travelers </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure Travelers </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Cargo and Mail </li></ul><ul><li>Charter flights ( cheaper such as NAS, SAMA, Menajet, etc..) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate Travel Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Road </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Groupware </li></ul><ul><li>Other Airlines </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft Manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft Leasing Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Labor Unions </li></ul><ul><li>Food Service Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Airports </li></ul><ul><li>Local Transportation Service </li></ul><ul><li>Hotels </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Carriers </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Carrier Start ups </li></ul><ul><li>Cargo Carrier Business Strategy Change </li></ul><ul><li>Charter Flight ( similar to Menajet) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Suppliers Services Passengers Travel & Tourism Airline Industry Carriers, General Aviation, Airports <ul><li>Aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Engines </li></ul><ul><li>Electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Financing </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Telecom </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Business Travelers </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure Travelers </li></ul><ul><li>Travel Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Tourist Attractions </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences and </li></ul><ul><li>Conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Hotels </li></ul><ul><li>Restaurants </li></ul><ul><li>Retailers </li></ul>Lower Sales Lower Sales Decreased Productivity & Weaker Relationships Lost Revenue Impacts of a Weakened link in the MEA Diamond Induced Costs
  9. 9. The Theory cont’d <ul><li>What is Economic Development? </li></ul><ul><li>Local economic development involves the allocation of limited resources - land, labor, capitol and entrepreneurship in a way that has a positive effect on the level of business activity, employment, income distribution patterns, and fiscal solvency. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development is purely and simply the creation of wealth in which community benefits are created. There are only three approaches used to enhance local economic development. They are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business Retention and Expansion - enhancing existing businesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business Expansion - attracting new business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business Start-ups - encouraging the growth of new businesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>For Porter economic development depends on the productivity with which national sources are employed i.e. by upgrading their competitive advantages in their existing industries or by creating new ones in new industries. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Porter’s Framework: Stages of National Competitive Development
  11. 11. Porter’s Framework Cont’d <ul><li>Porter defines a dynamic process of four stages of national competitive development: factor-driven, investment-driven, innovation-driven and wealth-driven. </li></ul><ul><li>The first three involve “successive upgrading of a nation’s competitive advantages and will normally be associated with progressively rising economic prosperity”. The fourth stage “is one of drift and ultimately decline” (Competitive Advantages of Nations, p.546). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Driver of Development Source of competitive advantage Examples Factor Condition <ul><li>Basic factors of </li></ul><ul><li>production </li></ul><ul><li>i.e., Natural Resources, </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Locations, </li></ul><ul><li>Unskilled Labour </li></ul>CANADA, AUSTRALIA, SINGAPORE, SOUTH KOREA before 1980 Investment <ul><li>Investment in Capital </li></ul><ul><li>equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of national </li></ul><ul><li>consensus in favour of </li></ul><ul><li>investment over </li></ul><ul><li>consumption </li></ul>JAPAN during 1960’s SOUTH KOREA during 1980’s Innovation All four determinants of national advantage interact to drive the creation of new technology JAPAN since late 1970’s ITALY since early 1970’s Wealth Emphasis on managing existing wealth Competitive Advantage UK during post war period USA Switzerland since 1980
  13. 13. Competitive Advantage of Some Countries
  14. 14. Case Study: KSA
  15. 15. <ul><li>Saudi Arabia is currently at the investment-driven stage of economic development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some pockets of the economy remain in the factor-driven stage and others are pushing forward into the innovation-driven stage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Kingdom is investing in its infrastructure, encouraging and capitalizing on foreign economic participation, and producing basic goods and services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The economy remains heavily reliant on natural resources (indicative of a factor-driven economy), but this is offset by strong economic activity in other value-adding areas such as manufacturing, banking and health care services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The oil and gas sector itself, traditionally factor-driven, is evolving to reflect the Kingdom’s movement into more advanced stages of economic development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly, oil and gas activities are being developed downstream which have, for example, spawned important industry players in the petrochemical sector. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furthermore, new technologies are being applied in oil extraction and recovery, suggesting emergent, innovation-driven activity. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. KSA: Stages of Economic Development
  17. 17. Research and Other Authors Contribution
  18. 18. Categories of Countries according to Level of Economic Development Four ( Five) Stages of Competitiveness in A Country.
  19. 19. Categories of Countries according to Level of Economic Development Cont’d Public Policies During the different stages
  20. 20. NIC - Newly industrializing countries <ul><li>Export-oriented economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Early: focus on low-priced, labor-intensive goods </li></ul><ul><li>Late: focus on large scale industrialized mass production </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taiwan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul></ul></ul>Categories of Countries according to Level of Economic Development Cont’d
  21. 21. Former CPE (centrally planned economies) <ul><li>Large but outdated industrial base </li></ul><ul><li>Educated workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Poor marketing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Privatization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of legal system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Romania </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ukraine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul></ul>Categories of Countries according to Level of Economic Development Cont’d
  22. 22. OECD - Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developmen t <ul><li>Industrial and post-industrial economies </li></ul><ul><li>High technology production, services </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USA, EU, Japan, Australia and New Zealand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plus some advanced NICS (Mexico, South Korea, Turkey) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plus some former CPEs (Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic) </li></ul></ul>Categories of Countries according to Level of Economic Development Cont’d
  23. 23. LDC - Less developed countries <ul><li>Economy is still largely agricultural </li></ul><ul><li>Most technology controlled by multinational corporations </li></ul><ul><li>High level of international debt </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently have problems of political stability </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>El Salvador </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zaire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bangladesh </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 25. It is a matter of Quality not only Quantity
  25. 26. Sustaining Competitive Advantage <ul><li>Owning intellectual property rights </li></ul><ul><li>Investing in research and development </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving economies of scale or scope </li></ul><ul><li>Exploiting the experience curve </li></ul>
  26. 27. Other Contributions: The 6-stages Framework
  27. 28. Strategic Planning for Economic Development
  28. 29. Competitive Strategies <ul><li>Primary Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Low-Cost Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance </li></ul>
  29. 30. Strategic Planning Helps You <ul><li>Understand your local economy </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate possible approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Target your limited resources </li></ul><ul><li>Set performance objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Tell your board and the public what you are going to do </li></ul><ul><li>Manage your career </li></ul>
  30. 31. Local Economies Are Volatile Strategic planning deals with change
  31. 32. A Strategy Identifies Your Competitive Advantages Economic Development Is Not An End In Itself Some companies Create Competitive Economy in the Country (Ex: Nokia)
  32. 33. Nokia (Finland): Creating the World’s Most Competitive Economy
  33. 34. <ul><li>Situation in the beginning of the 21 st century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finland is a leading competitive nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased unemployment among the low skilled labors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications cluster accounts for 6.9% of GDP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia is the leader of the Telecom industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motorola lost mobile phone leadership to Nokia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe downturn in the Telecom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortage of skilled Finnish workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finnish suppliers produce highly customized inputs </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Porter’s Diamond: Finland/Nokia <ul><li>Factor Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One of the world’s most homogenous, united and stable societies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National competitive strategy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tradition of innovative engineering and telecom industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sophisticated education and university system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Related and supportive industries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local supply for highly customized inputs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telecom cluster with around 4,000 firms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highest public R&D spending in Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venture capital forum </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Demand Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia created the world’s largest single mobile market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First to have severe competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A market of early adopters with very high standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finland amongst the world leaders in mobile penetration ( Mobile phone is a national symbol) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finnish telephone network is never monopolized by state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operators engage actively with equipment manufactures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A national industrial message for national competitiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open market as there are no restrictions for foreign ownership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serve distinct customer needs with out constraints on standards </li></ul></ul></ul>Porter’s Diamond: Finland/Nokia
  36. 37. <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very stable with a long-term view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiatives to improve national innovative capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open socialist economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A policy of minimum interference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What else should the government do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove centralized wage settings mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage young and low-skilled to join the work force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage more global firms to open R&D centers in Finland </li></ul></ul>Porter’s Diamond: Finland/Nokia
  37. 38. Economic Transformation in Finland <ul><li>The emergence of Finland as a telecom powerhouse </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional expertise not monopolized </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunication cluster creation: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster goal: Strengthen Finnish competitiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World-wide competitive advantage through private-public partnerships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operators, content providers and equipment manufacturers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equity capital: new important source of funding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>R&D focused on technology and telecommunications </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Nokia’s worldwide leadership after the clustering <ul><li>International operations in various field </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide joint ventures </li></ul><ul><li>Highly skilled work-force </li></ul><ul><li>Nordic identity through the “Nokia way” </li></ul><ul><li>Low production cost and short product development cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Broad market: serves distinct customer segments with different needs </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on R&D (15 countries, 9% of its revenue) </li></ul><ul><li>Nokia is always ahead of its competitors (design, internet, software, …) </li></ul>
  39. 40. Finland Basic Strategic Choices <ul><li>Innovation activity in a world without borders </li></ul><ul><li>It should be demand and user oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Create an innovative environment: individual and community. </li></ul><ul><li>Should create a system where the activities of development are clear and defined. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Focal Points of the basic choices
  41. 42. Planning Stages of Economic Development
  42. 43. Economic Development Components of Planning (1 of 3) <ul><li>Understanding the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Creating an open and transparent planning process </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing leaders together </li></ul><ul><li>Creating leadership buy-in </li></ul><ul><li>Getting community input </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at economic forces </li></ul>
  43. 44. Economic Development Components of Planning (2 of 3) <ul><li>Taking ownership of the strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a vision </li></ul><ul><li>Defining priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Setting long-term goals </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Setting measurable objectives </li></ul>
  44. 45. Economic Development Components of Planning (3 of 3) <ul><li>Gaining agreements by implementation partners </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deadlines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating the short-term implementation plan </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing the oversight group </li></ul><ul><li>Setting the review schedule </li></ul>
  45. 46. Few Economic Development Approaches <ul><li>Retaining revenue within the community </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure development </li></ul><ul><li>Improving the workforce </li></ul><ul><li>New basic employer recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Retention & expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Small business development </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul>
  46. 47. Case Study: Lebanon
  47. 48. <ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><li>To do a strategic plan for Economic Development in Lebanon . </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify progresses made and issues present in the areas of: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture & Recreation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education & Human Development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industry & Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban and Community Development </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 49. General Vision Plan <ul><li>The purpose of the proposed project is to develop a Strategic Plan for Lebanon’ Economic development ( Vision plan). </li></ul><ul><li>The proposed Vision Plan will function as a “road map” to help the government to combine the capabilities and the possibilities of Lebanon in order to achieve a higher Economical level. </li></ul><ul><li>The proposed Plan will improve Lebanon’s status as a regional magnet, enhance the quality of life for the residents, increase Lebanon’s competitive advantages, and assist its planned regional and global integration. </li></ul><ul><li>The Plan preparation should go through three (3) phases: ( we will not focus on the current state as these already known) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present State of Lebanon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the Challenges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vision Planning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Challenges <ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify areas needing additional development </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Undertake the following activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity & Constraint Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive Advantage Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Futuristic & Predictive Analysis </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Plan Development <ul><li>Lebanon 2020 Vision Plan will be conceptualized at three (3) scales: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each with four (4) dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social/Cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial and physical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And each from three (3) perspectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macro, involving Scenario Building & Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meso, involving Strategy Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro, involving Policy Formulation </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. Other Development Strategies <ul><li>Export-oriented development </li></ul><ul><li>Import rather than invent technology when it is expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Deemphasize traditional agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Use multinational corporations (MNCs) to provide </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing and management expertise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology transfer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve wages and social services </li></ul><ul><li>Improve environmental standards </li></ul>
  52. 53. Vision Planning: Model of Development Scenarios Global Development Perspective Regional Development Perspective National Capabilities & Constraints National Trends & Patterns of Development National Needs & Demands National Values & Principles Scenarios for Lebanon’s Role & Place in the Region & Beyond Scenarios For Economic Develop- ment Social & Cultural Development Images Spatial Development Images Political Development Images NATIONAL SECTORAL / SPATIAL REGIONAL NATIONAL GLOBAL
  53. 54. Vision Planning: Model of Development Scenarios Global Integration Regional Integration National Isolation Role & Place in the World <ul><li>Export promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Free trade policy/privatization </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on world markets </li></ul><ul><li>Joint foreign investments </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-sectoral development </li></ul><ul><li>(comparative & competitive) </li></ul><ul><li>Technological alliances </li></ul>Economic Development Framework <ul><li>Selective trade policy </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on regional markets </li></ul><ul><li>Regional economic cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted sectoral development </li></ul><ul><li>Regional infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed-sectoral development </li></ul><ul><li>(comparative & competitive) </li></ul><ul><li>Import substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Economic protectionism </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic self-sufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on domestic market </li></ul><ul><li>Local resource dependency </li></ul><ul><li>Mono-sectoral development </li></ul><ul><li>(comparative advantage) </li></ul><ul><li>Globalism </li></ul><ul><li>Modernization </li></ul><ul><li>Mass culture </li></ul>Tradition & Modernity <ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Localism </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Regionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Culturalism </li></ul><ul><li>Government as coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization </li></ul><ul><li>Private Sector as leader </li></ul>State & People <ul><li>Government as controller </li></ul><ul><li>Centralization </li></ul><ul><li>Private Sector as follower </li></ul><ul><li>Government as leader </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled decentralization </li></ul><ul><li>Private Sector as actor </li></ul>Alternative Paths of National Development
  54. 55. Vision Planning: Model of Goal, Strategy, Objective and Policy Formulation Prosperity & Unity Growth & Competitiveness Spatial Objectives Goal Maximization of National Interest & Public Participation Social Strategies Economic Strategies Spatial Strategies Strategy Political Strategies Spatial Social Objectives Economic Objectives Integration of Space Objective Political Objectives Social Policies Economic Policies Spatial Policies Political Policies Policy Political Social & Culturall Economic
  55. 56. Take into consideration <ul><li>To plan for a more competitive future, these issues need to be immediately addressed: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time Management (CPM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Preparation Summary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Team Demographic Summary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Budget Summary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logistics Summary </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 57. General Conclusions <ul><li>For strategic economic development planning to be effective, the active involvement of the private and nonprofit sectors and all levels of government is critical. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance measures have to be broadly defined </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development is inextricably linked to issues of social equity and environmental protection </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development is quantitative and qualitative. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable development should be a core mission, not an optional extra. </li></ul>
  57. 58. References <ul><li>Interviews MEA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mr. Hassan Sabra Head of communication department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mr. Yassine Sabbagh Director of MASCO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mrs. Sahar Sabra Director of IT department </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ministry of information </li></ul><ul><li>National Education Strategy in Lebanon; Strategic Plan Document; December 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>The Lebanese Economy in 2008-09, Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture of Beirut and Mount Lebanon </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive advantages of Nations, Micheal Porter </li></ul><ul><li>KSA economic development, By Rodney Wilson, with Abdullah Al Salamah, Monica Malik, Ahmed Al Rajhi </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia - Country history and economic development: http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/Saudi-Arabia-COUNTRY-HISTORY-AND-ECONOMIC-DEVELOPMENT.html </li></ul><ul><li>Finland and Nokia: Creating the World's Most Competitive Economy Michael E. Porter , Orjan Solvell </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring sustainable economic growth and development by Peter Bartelmus </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Tech_Educ_Voc_Training/economic-development.pdf </li></ul>
  58. 59. THE END Thank you

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