The Einstein Tower (Einsteinturm) in Potsdam is an Expressionist work by architect Erich Mendelsohn, 1920
Expressionism evolved from the work of avant garde artists and designers in Germany and other European coutries during the first decades of the twentieth century. Key features of Expressionism are:
organic or biomorphic forms
massive sculpted shapes
extensive use of concrete and brick
lack of symmetry
many fanciful works rendered on paper but never built
Neo-expressionism built upon expressionist ideas. Architects in the 1950s and 1960s designed buildings that expressed their feelings about the surrounding landscape. Sculptural forms suggested rocks and mountains. Organic and Brutalist architecture can often be described as Neo-expressionist.
Expressionist and Neo-expressionist Architects
Walter Gropius (early works)
The acknowledged master of neo-expressionism (said to have evolved from 1910s and 1920s German expressionism)—characterized by the sublimation of right angles to sensuously sweeping curves made possible by suspended steel cable roofs and concrete (gunite) sprayed over metal frames—was Eero Saarinen, whose TWA terminal (1956–1962) at Idlewild Airport (later Kennedy) in New York City is the most famous of its type.
MICHAEL GRAVES (b. July 9, 1934) American . Graves has achieved his greatest fame with his designs for domestic household items. He directs the firm Michael Graves & Associates. Graves and his firm have earned acclaim for a wide variety of commercial and residential buildings and interior design. In 1999 Graves was awarded the National Medal of Arts and in 2001 the Gold Medal from the American Institute of Architects. In 2003, an infection of unknown origin (possible bacterial meningitis) left Graves paralyzed from the waist down. He is still active in his practice, which is currently involved in a number of projects; including an addition to the Detroit Institute of Arts, and a large Integrated Resort in Singapore
PORTLAND BUILDING 15-story municipal office building located at 1120 SW 5th Avenue in downtown Portland, Oregon. Opened in 1982. Distinctive block-like design and square windows, an icon of postmodern architecture. In 1985, the building was adorned by addition of the hammered-copper statue Portlandia above the front entrance. The building remains controversial among Portlanders as well as the entire architecture field for its revolutionary design which was a rejection of the Modernist principles established in the early 20th century. The design was selected as the winning design in a large scale design competition with Philip Johnson as one of the three members of the selection committee. Many structural flaws, said to be due to a lack of funds, came to light shortly after the building's completion. The building's failings are the subject of much humor and contempt by the civil servants who work there.
PHILIP JOHNSON ( July 8, 1906– January 25, 2005) American . 1928 Johnson met the Bauhaus architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe The pupil had finally found the master. Johnson continued to work as a proponent of modern architecture, using the Museum of Modern Art. His early influence - use of glass; his masterpiece was a "Glass House" - his own residence. Joined Mies in the design of the 39 story Seagram Building (1956), the remarkable bronze and glass tower on Park Avenue . Coordinated the master plan of Lincoln Center and designing the New York State Theater of that complex. Meanwhile, Johnson began to grow impatient with the orthodoxies of the International Style he had championed. The glass and steel tower had by the 1960's become commonplace the world over. He eventually rejected the metallic appearance of earlier International Style buildings, and began designing spectacular, crystalline structures uniformly sheathed in glass. Johnson's architectural work is a balancing act between the more "serious" movement of Minimalism, and the more populist movement of Pop art. His best work has aspects of both movements. His work was seen by purists of either side as always too contaminated or influenced by the other.
Philip Johnson’s style was ever-changing stylistic adherences, which passed from modernity to deconstruction through abstract classicism and historicist postmodernity: in 1932, with an exhibition in the New York MoMA, he introduced in the United States what he and Henry-Russell Hitchcock named “International Style”; in 1988, or 56 years later, with another MoMA exhibition he consecrated the fractured architecture of deconstruction.
He died in 2005, at the age of 99.
He was Mies’s pupil, built Glass House just like Farnsworth House.
He received the first Pritzker prize
Franz Schulze, who wrote Mies’s biography, also wrote Johnson’s.
MoMA EXHIBITION Philip Johnson , with his friends Alfred H. Barr, Jr . and Henry-Russell Hitchcock examined recent trends in architecture, and the three assembled their discoveries as the landmark show "The International Style: Architecture Since 1922" at the Museum of Modern Art, in 1932. The show was the introduction of modern architecture to the American public, very important in shaping American architecture in the century. It introduced such pivotal architects as Le Corbusier, Gropius, and Mies van der Rohe. The exhibition was also notable for a controversy: architect Frank Lloyd Wright withdrew his entries in pique that he was not more prominently featured. In the book accompanying the show, coauthored with Hitchcock, Johnson argued that the new modern style maintained three formal principles: 1. An emphasis on architectural volume over mass (planes rather than solidity) 2. A rejection of symmetry and 3. Rejection of applied decoration. The definition of the movement as a "style" with distinct formal characteristics has been seen by some critics as downplaying the social and political bent that many of the European practitioners shared.
The AT&T Building in Manhattan, now the Sony Building, completed in 1984
Controversial for its neo-Georgian pediment (Chippendale top). At the time, it was seen as provocation on a grand scale: crowning a Manhattan skyscraper with a shape echoing a historical wardrobe top defied every precept of the modernist aesthetic: historical pattern had been effectively outlawed among architects for years. In retrospect other critics have seen the AT&T Building as the first Postmodernist statement, necessary in the context of modernism's aesthetic cul-de-sac.
The New Eclecticism (1970s–)
In his book, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966), Robert Venturi condemned "the puritanically moral language of orthodox Modern[ism]." He favored "messy vitality over obvious unity," "the ugly and ordinary architecture" he soon embraced in Learning from Las Vegas (1972). Most architects were reluctant to fetishize "the vulgar" but were receptive to his notion that modernism's "forced simplicity" did not adequately reflect the "ambiguities of contemporary experience." Indeed, retreat from the Miesian model was already under way before Venturi wrote.
Brutalism referred to massive asymmetrical structures, usually in poured concrete left rough, with small openings, deep recesses, and aggressive projections emphasizing the play of light and shadow; Paul Rudolph's Art and Architecture Building (1958–1965) at Yale University was firmly brutalistic, more so than the Jonas Salk Institute for Biological Studies (1959–1965) in La Jolla, California, or other structures by Louis Kahn, whose masterly work could not easily be categorized but who was influenced nonetheless by the genre.
Postmodernism arose shortly after Venturi's second book appeared. A kind of umbrella term in architecture in general from the late 1970s the 1990s, Pomo involved the return of ornament, poly-chrome, mixed materials, and historical design elements like Palladian windows, gables, pediments, elaborate moldings, and the classical orders, as well as unprecedented experimentation with shapes, composition, and the juxtaposition of formerly incompatible features as seen in the works of Charles Moore, Michael Graves, Robert A. M. Stern, and many others, including Venturi.
Deconstructivism, or Deconstruction, is an approach to building design that attempts to view architecture in bits and pieces. The basic elements of architecture are dismantled. Deconstructivist buildings may seem to have no visual logic. They may appear to be made up of unrelated, disharmonious abstract forms. Deconstructive ideas are borrowed from the French philosopher Jacques Derrida.
As the 1990s opened, Pomo was surpassed in media attention by Decon—deconstructivist architecture—represented by prominent figures like Peter Eisenman and Frank Gehry. As with Pomo, Decon borrowed freely from literary studies: a building was a "text" with no intrinsic meaning other than what was brought to it by "readers"—observers, critics, architects themselves. History had little to offer because knowledge is subjective, noncumulative. The architect was therefore free to design any thing in any way. The resulted surpassed even Pomo in its radical disassembling and reconstructing of parts to form heretofore unimagined wholes, perhaps most famously represented by Gehry's Guggenheim Museum (1991–1997) in Bilbao, Spain.
Contextualism, a trend in thinking in the later parts of 20th Century, influences the ideologies of the postmodern movement in general. Contextualism was centered on the belief that all knowledge is “context-sensitive”. This idea was even taken further to say that knowledge cannot be understood without considering its context. This influenced Postmodern Architecture to be sensitive to context
With architects practicing globally, with new materials and technologies at hand, and with every incentive to experiment, expressive possibility is greater than ever before, resulting in a new eclecticism. To mannerisms already mentioned, pluralism adds several identifiable categories: "green" or sustainable energy conserving design; conscious reworking of vernacular and "populist"—that is, commercial—traditions; revived classicism; neomodernism with its "minimalist" or extremely simplified versions; and high-tech, making art of structural and mechanical systems.
High Tech Architecture
High-tech buildings are often called machine-like. Steel, aluminium, and glass combine with brightly colored braces, girders, and beams. Many of the building parts are prefabricated in a factory and assembled later. The support beams, duct work, and other functional elements are placed on the exterior of the building, where they become the focus of attention. The interior spaces are open and adaptable for many uses.
The High-tech Centre Pompidou in Paris appears to be turned inside out, revealing its inner workings on the exterior facade.
These categories are porous. Some architects work exclusively in one while others combine two or more in a single building or in their work as a whole, borrowing freely from each other all the while, benefiting as well from an "anything goes" professional climate. Nor are the categories as mutually exclusive or as historically correct as in the eclecticisms of taste and style. Nevertheless, "selecting aspects of diverse [but no longer exclusively] historical styles in order to form new and acceptable compositions" is the norm. In the absence of stylistic consensus, compositional possibility in the twenty-first century is virtually unlimited.
CHARLES MOORE (October 31, 1925– December 16, 1993) American Architect, educator, writer, and winner of the AIA Gold Medal in 1991.
Conspicuous design features, including loud color combinations, supergraphics, stylistic collisions, the re-use of esoteric historical-design solutions, and the use of non-traditional materals such as plastic, (aluminized) PET film, platinum tiles, and neon signs.
His work provokes arousal, demands attention.
His mid-1960s New Haven residence, published in Playboy , featured an open, freestanding shower in the middle of the room, its water nozzled through a giant sunflower. Such design features (historical detail, ornament, fictional treatments, ironic significations) have made Moore one of the very first postmodern innovators, along with Robert Venturi and a few others.
"Body, Memory, and Architecture," written with Kent Bloomer, is a plea for architects to design structures for three-dimensional user experience instead of two-dimensional visual appearance. "The City Observed: Los Angeles" remains an excellent guide to Los Angeles' significant architecture.
PIAZZA D ITALIA
Ricardo Bofill (born December 5, 1939) is a Catalan architect of Jewish descent.
He was born in Barcelona and studied at the Architectural School in Barcelona, and later in Geneva.
Bofill is one of the main representatives of postmodernism in architecture.
In 1963 he gathered a group of architects, engineers, planners, sociologist, writers, movie makers and philosophers: The Taller de Arquitectura was founded, an international team which for more than 40 years, has gathered great experience in urban planning, architecture, landscaping, interior, furniture and product design. Today, hundreds of projects around the world validate our capacity to design in harmony with specific, different local cultures. www.bofill.com
Robert Arthur Morton Stern , usually credited as Robert A. M. Stern , (born May 23, 1939) is an American architect and Dean of the Yale University School of Architecture. Before taking that post, he was professor of architecture at Columbia and director of Columbia's Temple Hoyne Buell Center for the Study of American Architecture. He received a bachelor's degree from Columbia in 1960 and a master's degree in architecture from Yale in 1965. After graduating from Yale, Stern worked as a designer in the office of Richard Meier in 1966, prior to forming the firm of Stern & Hagmann with a fellow student from his days at Yale, John S. Hagmann, in 1969. In 1977 he founded the successor firm, Robert A. M. Stern Architects. His work is generally classified as postmodern, though a more useful classification would be a particular emphasis on context and the continuity of traditions. He may have been the first architect to use the term "postmodernism“, but more recently he has used the phrase "modern traditionalist" to describe his work.
Richard Meier (born October 12, 1934 in Newark, New Jersey) is an influential, contemporary American architect known for his rationalist designs and the use of the colour white.
He earned a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Cornell University in 1957, worked for Skidmore, Owings and Merrill briefly in 1959, and then for Marcel Breuer for three years, prior to starting his own practice in New York in 1963. Identified as one of The New York Five in 1972, his commission of the Getty Center Museum in Los Angeles, California catapulted his popularity among the mainstream.
Much of Meier's work builds on the work of the architectural masters of the early to mid-20th century- especially that of Le Corbusier and, in particular, Le Corbusier's early phase. In fact, it might be said that Meier has probably built more using Corbusier's ideas than anyone, including Le Corbusier himself[ citation needed ]. Meier expanded many ideas evident in Le Corbusier's work, particularly the Villa Savoye and the Swiss Pavilion.
His work also reflects the influences of other master designers such as Mies Van der Rohe and, in some instances, Frank Lloyd Wright and Luis Barragán (without the colour)[ citation needed ]. White has been used in many architectural landmark buildings throughout history, including Cathedrals and the white-washed villages of the mediterranean region--in Spain, southern Italy and Greece.
In 1984, Meier was awarded the Pritzker Prize. He also consulted on the design of several buildings that appear in the 2003 city building computer game SimCity 4 ,[ citation needed ] making him perhaps the first professional architect ever commissioned to participate in building design for a computer game.
If Frank Lloyd Wright was the most important architect of the first half of the twentieth century, Sir James Frazer Stirling (22 April 1926 in Glasgow – 25 June 1992 in London) was surely the most important and influential architect of the second half, admired by all the other architects of the time and now, in the XXI century, by a new generation. He is perhaps best known as one of a number of young architects in various countries who from the 1950s on, questioned and subverted the compositional and theoretical precepts of the first Modern Movement. Stirling's development of an agitated, mannered reinterpretation of those precepts - much influenced by his friend and teacher, the important architectural theorist and urbanist Colin Rowe - introduced an eclectic spirit that allowed him to plunder the whole sweep of architectural history as a source of compositional inspiration, from ancient Rome and the Baroque, to the many manifestations of the modern period, from Frank Lloyd Wright to Alvar Aalto. His secret lay in his ability to incorporate these encyclopedaic references subtly, within a strong and muscular, very decisive architecture of strong, confident gestures that aimed to remake urban form.
STATE GALLERY STUTTGART
Peter Eisenman (born August 11, 1932 in Newark, New Jersey) one of the foremost practitioners of deconstructivism in American architecture. Eisenman's fragmented forms are identified with an eclectic group of architects that have been, at times unwillingly, labelled deconstructivists. Although Eisenman shuns the label, he has had a history of controversy aimed at keeping him in the public (academic) eye. His theories on architecture pursue the emancipation and autonomy of the discipline and his work represents a continued attempt to liberate form from all meaning, a struggle that most find difficult to understand. He always had strong cultural relationships with European intellectuals like his English mentor Colin Rowe and the Italian historian Manfredo Tafuri. The work of philosopher Jacques Derrida is a key influence in Eisenman's architecture. He is often seen in a bowtie and a black sweater with a small hole.
Seattle Public Library- Rem Koolhas
Seattle –City with the technological futurism of Boeing and Microsoft, and commercial revolutions like Amazon and Starbucks
The library has 35,000 square meters plus 7,000 of underground parking
Organized on five superposed and shifted “platforms” interspersed with zones assigned for children, access, consultations, and reading.
The whole thing is closed off with a glass and steel facade that folds up, with origami-like weightlessness, to adapt to the piling of platforms
Most of the platforms are supports to a publicly accessible collection of books shelved along two large ramps that make for functional and spatial continuity on four levels
Rem Koolhas is a prominent Dutch architect, another of his recent works is Casa da Música of Porto, a large auditorium in Portugal.
Science Center in the Volkswagen city of Wolfsburg
Designed by Zaha Hadid
self-compactable concrete, a technique with which its oneiric form is achieved
experiment stations are randomly placed on it
sculptural free-standing volume that lifts up on pachyderm legs a refined landscape of warped concrete
Cornell and Bank of Hong Kong- I.M.Pei
BANK OF SPAIN
Designed by Eduardo de Adaro and Severiano Sáinz de la Lastra (1891)
REMODELED BY RAFAEL MONEO (2002)
Toyo Ito's work for Tod's , Sejima & Nishizawa's for Dior and Aoki's for Louis Vuitton
Japan has a culture and a style of it’s own.
Tokyo’s luxury place Ginza has high fashion houses by Renzo Piano, Tadao Ando etc.
The buildings shown above have superb exteriors, but they fail to bring the magic to their interiors.
Paul Klee Center-Three waves of steel in the outskirts of Bern that bring together the work of Paul Klee – an artist
Renzo Piano is the most admired architect of the present times (even more than Sir Norman Foster)
Italian- has offices in Italy and Paris, called ”Building Workshop”-employs not more than 50 persons- maintains a family atmosphere.
Artisan style work, eco sensitive
Exact geometries, exquisite details, and luminous spaces.
In the work shown, he moved away from his usual style and conceived a topographic and sculptural gesture, so memorably unique, that alludes to the undulating terrain of hills and has had as many defenders as detractors
Cottbus -a university library in an East German town close to the Polish border- Herzog & de Meuron
Ameba-shaped plan with a transparent perimeter with a curtain of glass
Inside the glass membrane, the nine floors are organized around cylindrical communications cores
They are sectioned by straight interruptions in such a way that no two are alike and none of them takes up the whole area
Wide variety of spaces and reading rooms with different heights and degrees of privacy
playful randomness and jazzy rhythm that gives no hint of the placid movement of the exquisite skin, the monochromatic and translucent subtlety of which is not easy to reconcile, with the chromatic frenzy of some of the interiors
Albion- London’s New Town hall by Sir Norman Foster
Energy efficiency and sustainability
Hemispheric volume makes it possible to minimize the surface to be sealed, thereby improving thermal management
Large glazed opening on the north and staggered composition on the south facade, avoid excess sunshine through the shadow cast by the successive breaks
Not a very popular work of Foster, esp. compared to German Parliament or British Museum