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Introduction to occupational health

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  • 1. Introduction to Occupational Health Victor Hoe Chee Wai MBBS, MPH (Malaya), MPH (Occupational Health) (Malaya), CMIA, OHD, CHRA Lecturer Occupational and Environmental Health Unit Department of Social and Preventive Medicine 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 1
  • 2. Outline of Lecture History and Definition Objective of OH Occupational health laws in Malaysia Occupational health in Malaysia Occupational history 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 2
  • 3. History Ramazini - 18th Century Father occupational medicine. Publish first systemic account of occupational disease (“De Morbis Artificum”/ Disease and Occupation) Emphasize obtaining occupational history Introduce practice of doctors visit workplace. Statue of Ramazini at the OEHU 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 3
  • 4. When a doctor visits a working class home he should be contended to sit on a three legged stool, if there isn’t a guilded chair, and he should take time for his examination; and to the questions recommended by Hippocrates he should add one more What is your occupation? Bernadino Ramazzini (1633-1714) 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 4
  • 5. In Malaysia, Occupational Health is not a new field, medical students have been looking at occupation and effect on health since the beginning of the MBBS programme in University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 5
  • 6. Definition of OH “The Promotion and Maintenance of the Highest Degree of Physical, Mental and Social Well Being of Workers in All Occupations; 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 6
  • 7. The prevention among workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions; The protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; The placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological and psychological equipment; and, to summarize: The adaptation of work to man and each man to his job” Joint ILO/WHO Committee (1950) 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 7
  • 8. That branch of medicine which deal with the relationship of man and his occupation, for the purposes of prevention of disease and injury, and the promotion of optimal health, productivity and social adjustment 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 8
  • 9. Objective of OH Active appreciation of social, economic and administrative needs and Responsibilities of the worker and company 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 9
  • 10. Why Occupational Health? The overall picture that emerges from all parts of the developing world is one of increased health and safety risks in all occupations. Dramatic changes in the global labour force will occur as globalisation and population growth continue to be affected by global economy. 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 10
  • 11. Legislation To understand the legislation we must first understand the way laws are formulated in this country 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 11
  • 12. Act Main Law Enacted by Parliament Regulation Details for enforcing the Act Gazette by Minister Code of Practice Guidelines No legal binding 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 12
  • 13. Act Factory and Machinery Act 1967 (FMA) Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA) Department of Occupational Safety and Health Ministry of Human Resource 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 13
  • 14. Others Legislation Pesticides Act 1984 Department of Agricultural Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 Atomic Energy Licensing Board Employees’ Social Security Act 1969 Social Security Organisation 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 14
  • 15. FMA (1967) Covers safety, health and welfare of workers in factories and working with machinery. “Factory” is defined as workplaces where 5 or more persons are employed and any premises where machinery is used. List of occupational Diseases where Notification is required – Section 35 of the parent act referring to Third Schedule – Notification must be directed to the DG of DOSH 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 15
  • 16. Regulations under FMA related to health FM (Safety, Health & Welfare) 1970 FM (Leads) 1984 FM (Asbestos) 1984 FM (Mineral Dust) 1989 FM (Noise Exposure) 1989 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 16
  • 17. OSHA (1994) The Occupational Safety & Health Act 1994 is enacted to complement the FMA 1967. Where there is any areas of conflict between the two Acts, OSHA 1994 will over-rule FMA 1967. 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 17
  • 18. Occupational Safety & Health Act 1994 Philosophy and Guiding Principles: “Responsibilities to ensure safety and health at the workplace lies with those who create the risk and with those who work with the risk.” Stress on self-regulation workers cooperation and participation Covers all persons at work except on board ships and the armed forces 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 18
  • 19. OSHA regulations OSH (Employers’ Safety and Health General Policy Statement)(Exception) 1995 OSH (Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards (CIMA)) 1996 OSH (Safety and Health Committee) 1996 OSH (Classification, Packaging and Labeling of Hazardous Chemicals) Regulation 1997 OSH (Safety and Health Officer) 1997 OSH (Prohibition of Use of Substance) Order 1999 OSH (Use and Standards of Exposure to Chemical Hazardous to Health) 2000 OSH (Notification of Accident, Dangerous Occurrence, Occupational Poisoning and Disease) Regulation 2004 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 19
  • 20. FMA vs OSHA FMA OSHA Limited to factories Covers most work places General Principle Prescriptive Government Enforcement 08/01/2008 Self-regulation MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 20
  • 21. Providers of Occupational Health in Malaysia 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 21
  • 22. Occupational Health Providers National Level. Government Agencies. Department of Public Health (DPH) Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) Social Security Organisation (SOCSO) National Instituite of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Universities State Level. State Health Departments State Departments of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 22
  • 23. District Level. District Health Office Hospital Occupational Health Clinics in Primary Health Care Facilities Private Occupational Health Doctors (Specialist/OHD) Enterprise Level Employers Occupational Health Doctor (Company Doctors/Company Appointed Doctors) 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 23
  • 24. Non-Governmental Organisation Union Malaysian Trade Union Congress Professional Organisation Society of Occupational and Environmental Health Malaysian Occupational Health Nurses Association Malaysian Industrial Hygienist Association 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 24
  • 25. Ministry of Health Have no legislative power under the OSHA1994 Main functions As an employer – should provide a safe and healthy work environment for all its workers As the custodian of the Nations health to provide the curative and preventive service for the Malaysian population 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 25
  • 26. Ministry of Human Resource National Council of Occupational Safety and Health (NCOSH) Departments of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Social Security Organisation (SOCSO) 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 26
  • 27. National Council for Occupation Safety and Health (NCOSH) Formed in 1995 15 members representing the government, employers, employees and nongovernmental or professionals organizations, each serving three-year terms Chaired by the Deputy Minister of Human Resources 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 27
  • 28. NCOSH Duties is to Discuss, Analyse and Investigate through the process of tripatism and subsequently forward suggestions to the Minister on matters which is in line with the aims of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 28
  • 29. Department of Occupational Safety & Health (DOSH) Begun in 1878 with the appointment of the first Machinery Inspector Machinery Department (Machinery Ordinance 1953) Factories and Machinery Department (Factories and Machinery Act 1967) Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) (Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA 1994)) 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 29
  • 30. DOSH Responsible for ensuring the Safety, Health and Welfare of persons at work and Protections of other people from hazards to safety and health arising from the activities of persons at work 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 30
  • 31. Major Activities Standard setting relevant legislation, codes of practice, guidelines Enforcement regional branch offices in every state Promotion enhance OSH consciousness 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 31
  • 32. National Institute Occupation Safety Health (NIOSH) Founded in December 1, 1992 as a Company Limited by Guarantee, under the Malaysian companies Act, 1965 to spearhead the safety and health culture at the workplace in Malaysia 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 32
  • 33. NIOSH The Board of Directors is a tripartite representation of the Government, the Private Sectors and the Workers Unions, provides autonomy in decision making. NIOSH was set up on a Launching Grant from the Government and the Social Security Organization (SOCSO) of Malaysia. 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 33
  • 34. Function of NIOSH Teaching Research Consultancy 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 34
  • 35. Social Security Organisation (SOCSO) Set up in 1971 To implement, administer and enforce The Employees’ Social Security Act, 1969 and The Employees’ Social Security (General Regulations), 1971. 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 35
  • 36. Insurance Scheme Injury Scheme Contribution by the employers only All workers with salary of RM3000 or less are required to contribute. Exception: Self employed, public servant Invalidity Pension Scheme Contribution by both the worker and employer It is an optional scheme 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 36
  • 37. Employment Injury Insurance Scheme The scheme provides workers with protection for accidents that occur while: Traveling (Commuting accident) Arising out of and in the course of employment Occupational disease 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 37
  • 38. Invalidity Pension Scheme 24 hours coverage to an employee against invalidity or death due to any cause not connected with his employment. The benefits provided are: Invalidity Pension Invalidity Grant Constant Attendance Allowance Survivors Pension Funeral Benefit Rehabilitation Educational Loan 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 38
  • 39. Occupational History “When a doctor visits a working-class home he should be content to sit on a three-legged stool, if there isn’t a gilded chair, and he should take time for his examination; and to the questions recommended by Hippocrates, he should add one more – What is your occupation?” Bernardino Ramazzini 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 39
  • 40. The most important diagnostic skill in the practice of occupational medicine is the taking of a comprehensive occupational history. 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 40
  • 41. Definition Occupy vt inhibit, fill; employ; take possession of (-pied, -plying) Occupation n employment, pursuit; fact of occupying; seizure Job n Piece of work, task; post, office Collins Gem pocket English Dictionary 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 41
  • 42. Chronology of Jobs Exposure Survey At work At home Current Job Description of a typical day Clinical clues Exploration of the temporal link Job and symptoms “Does other at work have similar problems?” 08/01/2008 MBBS-OH01 Introduction to OH 42