1. Angela Quintanar<br />History 140<br />History, Science and Trade<br />
2. What is History?<br />How Scientists Are Solving Histories Riddles<br /><ul><li>Technological advances have allowed historical researchers to dig deeper into events in history that have always been thought of as a dead end.
3. The technological advances according to the article have been in DNA testing and computer programs/software.
4. Some of the riddles that have been solved by using these advances include religious relics being fake. Identifying peoples true identity and what led to there demise .
5. They have also uncovered clues as to what happened to Amelia Earhart, sinking of notable ships and the lost minutes to Watergate. </li></li></ul><li>What Is History?<br /><ul><li>Institute of Texan Cultures
6. History plays a big part in the future of civilization. Studying it and learning from past mistakes allow governments to prepare .
7. The validity of sources is always questionable. Historians break down sources into two categories: primary and secondary
8. Primary sources – include first hand accounts
9. Secondary sources – History books and secondary accounts. </li></li></ul><li>Journey of Man <br /><ul><li>Beginning of man
10. Using DNA markers they </li></ul>were able to trace that <br />marker through every <br />continent <br /><ul><li>The DNA marker leads back </li></ul>to the Sans Bushman in <br />Africa<br /><ul><li>San Bushman
11. Each person in the tribe appears to have physical features known to every culture in the world.
13. Speculated that climatic change was a cause for migration out of Africa. </li></li></ul><li>Journey of Man<br /><ul><li>Genograhic Project
14. A project that Spencer Wells , National Geographic and IBM undertook over a 5 year span to collect and document DNA samples.
15. The project tries too answer the question of where we come from.
16. The project enabled the researchers to establish a common DNA marker .</li></li></ul><li>Catastrophe<br /><ul><li>Volcanoes
17. It is speculated that volcanic eruptions occurred in 535 that spewed ash into the atmosphere sparking cataclysmic events that would last for 150 years.
18. Volcanoes and it effect s on civilization
19. Rome- this caused massive droughts that effected crops. Starvation. civil unrest and disease occurred through out the Roman Empire.
20. Aztecs- Teotihuacan the capital city of this empire researchers have found a increase in deaths that were dated around the climate change of 535.
21. malnutrition and disease was the result of massive drought that was caused by the climate change</li></li></ul><li>Catastrophe<br /><ul><li>Bubonic Plague
22. In 542 the bubonic plague struck the roman empire under emperor Justinian.
23. Spread by fleas it almost buckled the empire as a whole.
24. Climatic change
25. The plague is thought to have developed due to climate change because the cool temperatures allowed bacteria to spread. This was evident in the fleas blockage that caused them to move onto humans.
26. The cool weather also caused a surge in the rate population which spread the plague quickly.
27. This climatic change forced people to migrate to other parts of the globe.
28. It caused shifts in political regimes and civil wars. The result was major powers faded away and new powers formed because they adapted to the climatic change.</li></li></ul><li>Lost cities of the Amazon<br /><ul><li>Marajo island
29. The people that lived on this island located at the mouth of the Amazon River developed an advanced civilization.
30. burial urn found that suggests that they were permanent because the urn were placed in the houses.
31. Intricate artifacts have been found for ceremonies, pottery such as plates, bowls etc.
32. Lived there for 900 years along with having now evidence of being effected by germs brought by western empires.</li></li></ul><li>Lost Cities of the Amazon<br /><ul><li>Terra preta
33. Portuguese for black soil
34. The people that cultivated this land developed a soil that was not known to the world.
35. It was key to there survival as a civilization and an advance in farming.
36. The black soil found was very fertile and. The cultivation still produces rich vegetation.</li></li></ul><li>The World in 1492<br /><ul><li>Christopher Columbus
37. Columbus's voyage marked a shift in the dynamic </li></ul>of the world politically and economically. His voyage <br />to the Americas marked the beginning of a globalized <br />world. <br /><ul><li>It was now possible for the world to be interconnected. Empires that were stagnant were now expanding out of Europe and becoming very wealthy.
38. Other countries followed and cultural differences were fused and trade between countries became a growing revenue for countries.
39. Politically , countries began to conquer the indigenous tribes of the regions. Exporting the raw materials from the regions began innovation in textiles, agriculture and industry. It made countries even more powerful. </li></li></ul><li>European Voyages and How the World Changes<br /><ul><li>Trade
40. With the expansion of empires it allowed countries to have access to ports and trade routes.
41. Major world powers from Europe were able to gain control of major sea trade routes. Asia had many goods that Europe had been importing for many years. Taking control of the ports only gave these countries more money and bigger hand in world trade.
42. Soon the Americas began to supply Europe with sought after goods and raw materials. Having the monopoly over these ports and trade routes only secured the countries future.
43. The Age of Discovery brought the world closer in the sense that the world was now able to integrate other countries techniques and advances into there everyday lives. </li>