GOV4A
The Government of the US
Exam success is
not a lottery!

Know your
terms
Know the
Articles
Know the
Examples
Session 4
The Executive Branch
of the US
The Executive Branch
Constitution & Executive
Branch
Presidential Power
Limitations & Constraints
Power and Influence:...
Executive & The Constitution
Found in Article 2
All executive power is
vested in one President

Electoral College outlined...
Some Key Presidents
George Washington

Richard M Nixon

• First President
• Bill of Rights
• Two term convention

• Waterg...
Some Key Presidents
• 9/11
• Anti terror legislation
• Education & AIDS
• War on Terror
• 2008 Financial Crisis

• Obamaca...
Role of the President
Head of State
Chief Diplomat
Chief Legislator
Commander in Chief
Chief Executive
Increasing Role of the President
Only national political
institution that can act
quickly and decisively in
times of crisi...
Powers of the President
• Propose Legislation
– Bush – No Child Left Behind

• Submit the Annual Budget
• Sign Legislation...
Power of Veto
Presidents can veto legislation, i.e. not make it
law
Standard Veto
Sends it back to Congress

Pocket Vet...
The Power to Persuade
Why only persuade:

Who Persuades:
Cabinet is not a reward to
 VP
Congress due to the separation
...
The President Persuades
Sometimes the Presidents wades into the
persuasion personally
Phone Calls
Budget Vote 1993 Clint...
Vice President of the United States
Vice President

First Vice President’s were the people who came second
in a Presidential Race
The role as moved on since i...
Modern VP Candidates
VPs chosen through a ‘Joint
Ticket’ System
A ‘balanced ticket’ is often
crucial in elections
Balance ...
Enumerated Powers of the VP
Presiding Officer of the Senate
• Votes in Senate Deadlocks
• Cheney voted to protect Bush's $...
However... Powers have Increased
Since Eisenhower the Vice Presidency
has been a breeding ground for
Presidents
Many disti...
Additional Powers
VPs are now a major
spokesperson for the
administration
– Gore: Environment
– Cheney: ‘Iron Issues’

The...
Cheney as Vice President
Portfolio Contained the
‘Iron Issues’
 Economic Issues
 Security Issues
 Energy Issues
 Party...
Biden as Vice President
Less powerful relatively
than Cheney
Focus on Foreign Policy
Washington Insider
 Senate Judiciary...
The US Cabinet
The advisory group selected by the President to aid him in making decisions and
coordinating the work of th...
Frequency of Meetings
Varies between President to
President.

George W Bush’s Meetings
Year

Frequency

Meeting number ten...
Functions of the Cabinet
For the President

Team Spirit
Consensual
Information
Gathering

Debate
Big Picture
See all
Depar...
Functions of the Cabinet
For the Cabinet

Get to know
Resolve
Disputes
Contact
Points

Catch the
President
Increased
Stand...
Cabinet Synoptic Links
USA:
Cabinet members must only be in the
executive
Not a reward, often more of a final
posting be...
Federal Bureaucracy
Unelected, Administrative Body in the Executive Branch, set out into departments
agencies and commissi...
Federal Bureaucracy

Executive
Departments

Executive
Agencies

Independent
Regulatory
Commissions

Government
Corporation...
Problems with the Bureaucracy
Clientelism
• Agencies serve the interests of those the are supposed to be overseeing
• Lap ...
Iron Triangles
Strong relationship between
three political bodies
• Interest Groups
• Congressional
Committees
• Agency
Ge...
Iron Triangles Example
Defense
Committees

Support Dept.
Defense
Contractor
Favours and Less Regulation

Department of
Def...
Executive Office of the President
Executive Office of the President
Top staff agencies in the White House that give the president
advice and support in his ...
Executive Office of the President

Office of
Management and
Budget

White House Office
(The West Wing)

National Security
...
White House Office
Most trusted advisors and aides

Chief of
Staff

Press
Secretary

Director of
Communications

Cabinet
S...
White House Office
 Liaison between President and Federal
Bureaucracy and Cabinet
 Liaison between President and Congres...
Remember this is just the Public Schedule,
WHO will create a more private one
White House Office Staff
President chooses them

‘Honest Brokers’
Staff should be following the Presidents Agenda,
Not the...
The Chief of Staff
Head of EXOP
Most Crucial Role
‘Deputy President’
Gate Keeper to the Oval
Denis McDonough

Protect the ...
The Chief of Staff
Bob Halderman

Leon Panetta

• Richard Nixon

• William J Clinton

John Sununu

Andrew Card

• George H...
Office of Management and Budget
Created by Nixon in 1970
Oversees the spending by all
Federal departments and
agencies

Ad...
National Security Council
Headed by National Security
Advisor
Nixon politicised the way in
which worked, running
Foreign P...
EXOP v Cabinet
From EXOP Perspective
 Regard Cabinet as too
distant and disloyal
from the President –
might ‘go native’
L...
Why?
Why?
White House

US State
Department

1.7 Mile Journey between the two
NSA – 30 seconds from the Oval
An Imperial President?
Term originates from the
1970s by Schlesinger
Focuses on abuse of
power by Johnson and
Nixon
EXOP b...
Why?
Executive branch dominates over the other
branches
Presidents craft Foreign Policy as Commander in
Chief and use the ...
Evidence
1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution giving Johnson a
‘blank cheque’ for Vietnam War
Nixon – Wire tapping, bombing of L...
Imperilled Presidency
However it can be imperilled
President Ford is a good example
• Lack of Party leadership in Congress...
‘Bifurcated’ presidency
It can be argued that the presidency is almost like
two separate roles, with different levels of p...
However!
There are contrasting examples
too;
• Foreign policy – Congress dried
up funds for the Vietnam conflict
under For...
George W Bush
Yes
Presidential Authority – Only response in
War on Terror

Many in Administration saw Congress as
below th...
Executive Synoptic Links
 UK Fusion of Powers vs US Separation of Powers
 Importance of Cabinet
 UK PM stronger domesti...
Exam success is
not a lottery!

Know your
terms
Know the
Articles
Know the
Examples
Answer the question, the whole
question and nothing but the
question!
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The executive branch the presidency

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  • Welcome
  • The executive branch the presidency

    1. 1. GOV4A The Government of the US
    2. 2. Exam success is not a lottery! Know your terms Know the Articles Know the Examples
    3. 3. Session 4 The Executive Branch of the US
    4. 4. The Executive Branch Constitution & Executive Branch Presidential Power Limitations & Constraints Power and Influence: Cabinet EXOP Federal Bureaucracy & Federal Agencies
    5. 5. Executive & The Constitution Found in Article 2 All executive power is vested in one President Electoral College outlined Term limits added via amendments Commander in Chief Cabinet not a requirement
    6. 6. Some Key Presidents George Washington Richard M Nixon • First President • Bill of Rights • Two term convention • Watergate • New Federalism Abraham Lincoln Ronald Reagan • Abolished Slavery • President during Civil War • Iran-Contra Affair • Robert Bork – SC Nominee Franklin D Roosevelt Bill J Clinton • Longest serving 12 years • The New Deal • Failed Impeachment • Failed Healthcare Reform
    7. 7. Some Key Presidents • 9/11 • Anti terror legislation • Education & AIDS • War on Terror • 2008 Financial Crisis • Obamacare • Gun Control • Immigration Reform • Osama Bin Laden • Bailouts George W Bush Barack H Obama
    8. 8. Role of the President Head of State Chief Diplomat Chief Legislator Commander in Chief Chief Executive
    9. 9. Increasing Role of the President Only national political institution that can act quickly and decisively in times of crisis Only nationally elected politician – claim a mandate EBBS AND FLOWS Crisis – Flows towards POTUS Peace – Congress Reasserts itself
    10. 10. Powers of the President • Propose Legislation – Bush – No Child Left Behind • Submit the Annual Budget • Sign Legislation • Veto Legislation – Bush Stem Cell Research • • • • • Act as Chief Executive Nominations Chief Commander in Chief Negotiate Treaties Pardon
    11. 11. Power of Veto Presidents can veto legislation, i.e. not make it law Standard Veto Sends it back to Congress Pocket Veto Doesn’t sign within last 10 days of Congress Line Item Veto Power to veto certain parts of legislation, ruled unconstitutional by Clinton v New York City 1998
    12. 12. The Power to Persuade Why only persuade: Who Persuades: Cabinet is not a reward to  VP Congress due to the separation  EXOP (Office of of powers Legislative Affairs) Lack of an honours system in  Party Leadership the US unlike the UK Can’t remove the whip  Interest Groups Neustadt: Presidential Power is the Power to Persuade
    13. 13. The President Persuades Sometimes the Presidents wades into the persuasion personally Phone Calls Budget Vote 1993 Clinton rang Marjorie Margolies Mezvinsky to get her to cast her vote Support Legislation Campaign in District Only if Popular!!!!
    14. 14. Vice President of the United States
    15. 15. Vice President First Vice President’s were the people who came second in a Presidential Race The role as moved on since its formation in the early days
    16. 16. Modern VP Candidates VPs chosen through a ‘Joint Ticket’ System A ‘balanced ticket’ is often crucial in elections Balance can be in the form of Experience, Ideology, Age, Region. Are race and gender now important as well?
    17. 17. Enumerated Powers of the VP Presiding Officer of the Senate • Votes in Senate Deadlocks • Cheney voted to protect Bush's $1.6bn tax cut Announces Electoral College Votes • January 2001 – Al Gore announces his own defeat First in line of Succession • If President dies, resigns or is removed from office • Has happened a total of 9 times Acting President • 25th Amendment: Cheney was President for 2 hours whilst Bush was sedated for an operation
    18. 18. However... Powers have Increased Since Eisenhower the Vice Presidency has been a breeding ground for Presidents Many distinguished politicians battle for the role – Bush Senior, Joe Biden Presidents give VP more responsibility and some become advisors VPs now see daily intelligence briefings and all have an office in the West Wing
    19. 19. Additional Powers VPs are now a major spokesperson for the administration – Gore: Environment – Cheney: ‘Iron Issues’ The VP is a major fundraiser VPs can play the ‘Washington Insider’ guiding POTUS
    20. 20. Cheney as Vice President Portfolio Contained the ‘Iron Issues’  Economic Issues  Security Issues  Energy Issues  Party Caucus The most powerful Vice President in History? The President and I have a different understanding
    21. 21. Biden as Vice President Less powerful relatively than Cheney Focus on Foreign Policy Washington Insider  Senate Judiciary Committee  36 years as a Senator He was the Second poorest member of Congress
    22. 22. The US Cabinet The advisory group selected by the President to aid him in making decisions and coordinating the work of the Federal Government. Membership is at the pleasure of the President 15 Heads of Department + Vice President + Director of OMB No constitutional requirement State John Kerry Treasury Jack Lew Defense Chuck Hagel Attorney General Eric Holder
    23. 23. Frequency of Meetings Varies between President to President. George W Bush’s Meetings Year Frequency Meeting number tends to decline towards an election year as election demands eat into his time 9 2002 5 2003 8 2004 Reagan in his first year held 36 Meetings 2001 6 2005 5 2006 6 2007 4 2008 5 2009 1
    24. 24. Functions of the Cabinet For the President Team Spirit Consensual Information Gathering Debate Big Picture See all Departments
    25. 25. Functions of the Cabinet For the Cabinet Get to know Resolve Disputes Contact Points Catch the President Increased Standing
    26. 26. Cabinet Synoptic Links USA: Cabinet members must only be in the executive Not a reward, often more of a final posting before retirement No Collective Ministerial Responsibility UK: Cabinet members sit in the legislature Cabinet posts are part of the PM’s powers of Patronage MPs want to be in Cabinet Collective Ministerial Responsibility
    27. 27. Federal Bureaucracy Unelected, Administrative Body in the Executive Branch, set out into departments agencies and commissions. They carry out policy on a day to day basis. Similar to the UK Civil Service the Federal Bureaucracy is the back bone of the US Government. They carry out policy and work out the finer details of the bills passed by Congress 2.7million employees $13.8 billion payroll 11% of employees in DC Roughly 900 Departments
    28. 28. Federal Bureaucracy Executive Departments Executive Agencies Independent Regulatory Commissions Government Corporations Department of the Treasury Federal Bureau of Investigation Federal Election Commission United States Postal Service
    29. 29. Problems with the Bureaucracy Clientelism • Agencies serve the interests of those the are supposed to be overseeing • Lap Dogs rather than Watchdogs Imperialism • Agencies seek to expand their own power at the expense of other agencies • Turf Battles Incrementalism • Agencies may act slowly and cautiously, with a nature to resist change • Argument very similar to the UK Civil Service
    30. 30. Iron Triangles Strong relationship between three political bodies • Interest Groups • Congressional Committees • Agency Generally considered as having a negative impact on policy
    31. 31. Iron Triangles Example Defense Committees Support Dept. Defense Contractor Favours and Less Regulation Department of Defense
    32. 32. Executive Office of the President
    33. 33. Executive Office of the President Top staff agencies in the White House that give the president advice and support in his role. It focuses on coordination, personnel management and advice giving Formed in 1939 as a result of the Brownlow Committee “The President Needs Help” Expansion of Federal Government
    34. 34. Executive Office of the President Office of Management and Budget White House Office (The West Wing) National Security Council
    35. 35. White House Office Most trusted advisors and aides Chief of Staff Press Secretary Director of Communications Cabinet Secretary
    36. 36. White House Office  Liaison between President and Federal Bureaucracy and Cabinet  Liaison between President and Congress  Screening of Telephone calls  Screening of Documents  Advisory Role  Draw up Presidential Schedule  ‘Lightening Conductors’
    37. 37. Remember this is just the Public Schedule, WHO will create a more private one
    38. 38. White House Office Staff President chooses them ‘Honest Brokers’ Staff should be following the Presidents Agenda, Not their own, like Sununu may have been Should not be in the media spotlight
    39. 39. The Chief of Staff Head of EXOP Most Crucial Role ‘Deputy President’ Gate Keeper to the Oval Denis McDonough Protect the interests of the President and advise him accordingly A Chief of Staff’s power is will depend on how strong they are
    40. 40. The Chief of Staff Bob Halderman Leon Panetta • Richard Nixon • William J Clinton John Sununu Andrew Card • George H W Bush • George W Bush Mack Mclarty Rahm Emanuel • William J Clinton • Barack Obama
    41. 41. Office of Management and Budget Created by Nixon in 1970 Oversees the spending by all Federal departments and agencies Advises the President on the allocation of Federal Funds Director is the only Senate confirmed position within EXOP.
    42. 42. National Security Council Headed by National Security Advisor Nixon politicised the way in which worked, running Foreign Policy through Kissinger from the West Wing Clinton returned it to its honest broker role
    43. 43. EXOP v Cabinet From EXOP Perspective  Regard Cabinet as too distant and disloyal from the President – might ‘go native’ Large rivalries existed during the Nixon Years as EXOP ran Foreign Policy with Henry Kissinger as National Security Advisor instead of the State Department From Cabinet Perspective  See EXOP as too close and too loyal to the President
    44. 44. Why?
    45. 45. Why? White House US State Department 1.7 Mile Journey between the two NSA – 30 seconds from the Oval
    46. 46. An Imperial President? Term originates from the 1970s by Schlesinger Focuses on abuse of power by Johnson and Nixon EXOP becomes the Court of an Emperor
    47. 47. Why? Executive branch dominates over the other branches Presidents craft Foreign Policy as Commander in Chief and use the vagueness of the Constitution to go to War Johnson and Nixon personified this
    48. 48. Evidence 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution giving Johnson a ‘blank cheque’ for Vietnam War Nixon – Wire tapping, bombing of Laos and Cambodia, executive privilege claims
    49. 49. Imperilled Presidency However it can be imperilled President Ford is a good example • Lack of Party leadership in Congress • Unable to control Federal Bureaucracy A principal weakness in the presidency is the inability of the White House to maintain control over the large federal bureaucracy. G . Ford
    50. 50. ‘Bifurcated’ presidency It can be argued that the presidency is almost like two separate roles, with different levels of power: • Foreign policy – almost unchecked power • Domestic policy – hugely constrained by Congress Clinton was easily able to send troops to Bosnia and Kosovo, whilst he couldn’t pass his healthcare bill • So is Congress ‘too effective’ a check and balance domestically, yet too weak on foreign issues?
    51. 51. However! There are contrasting examples too; • Foreign policy – Congress dried up funds for the Vietnam conflict under Ford (power of the purse) • Domestic policy – FDR was able to pass much legislation in the 1930s (New Deal), as was Johnson (Great Society)
    52. 52. George W Bush Yes Presidential Authority – Only response in War on Terror Many in Administration saw Congress as below the White House in National Defence Passing of Anti Terror Legislation (Patriot Act) No Congress refuses to extend Patriot Act
    53. 53. Executive Synoptic Links  UK Fusion of Powers vs US Separation of Powers  Importance of Cabinet  UK PM stronger domestically than US President  US President stronger on foreign policy than UK PM  UK PM has bigger ‘sticks’ and tastier ‘carrots’  US Term limits vs no limits on PM tenure  UK PMs can be presidential whereas US President’s can be imperial
    54. 54. Exam success is not a lottery! Know your terms Know the Articles Know the Examples
    55. 55. Answer the question, the whole question and nothing but the question!

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