Separation of powers
Checks and balances
lead, bargain, compromise, and persuade
Propose legislation – State of the union
Submit an annual budget
Sign bills into law
Veto legislation – bargaining tool
Nominations – Supreme Court, executive
Popularity of the President eg. size of the
President’s election victory, opinion polls
Divided government – Bush 2006 mid term
elections; Obama 2010
Filibuster proof majority............
Crises – post 9/11, Patriot Act. Gulf of Tonkin
Tactics – offering pork, national TV............
Vice President – tied vote – 2003 350 billion
dollar tax cut
Use of EXOP – work the corridors and
committee rooms of Capitol Hill
Cabinet eg. Treasury Secretary – tax/fiscal
Party leaders in Congress
Popularity of the President
Charismatic authority – Clinton. Obama.
Congress – reasserts itself – Watergate.
Bennett – ‘A President who uses a
combination of formal powers, informal
persuasion, popularity and legislative
skill, and is fortunate enough to be in
favourable circumstances, a clear mandate
and united government, can hope to get
many proposals through Congress’.