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Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
Electoral systems
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Electoral systems

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  • 1. Electoral Systems And how they work
  • 2. Plurality Systems <ul><li>First Past the Post </li></ul><ul><li>Used in UK general elections. </li></ul><ul><li>The country is divided into constituencies with a single MP. </li></ul><ul><li>Each voter has one vote. </li></ul><ul><li>The candidate with the largest number of votes wins the seat. </li></ul><ul><li>The party with the most seats forms the government. </li></ul>
  • 3. Advantages <ul><li>Easy for the voter to understand, cheap and inexpensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Links maintained with constituencies. </li></ul><ul><li>One party usually wins outright and the government is therefore strong. </li></ul><ul><li>Parties have a chance to carry out their manifesto promises. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been proven to work effectively. </li></ul>
  • 4. Disadvantages <ul><li>Parties coming consistently second or third are underrepresented. </li></ul><ul><li>Winning parties are overrepresented. </li></ul><ul><li>Winning governments usually only gain 40% of the total vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Voters in safe seats may not bother to vote. </li></ul><ul><li>The govt. may have less votes than its nearest rival. </li></ul>
  • 5. Majority Systems <ul><li>(The winning candidate achieves more than 50% of the vote) </li></ul><ul><li>The Alternative Vote System (AV) </li></ul><ul><li>Voters rank candidates in order of preference. </li></ul><ul><li>Any candidate with 50%+ votes is elected. </li></ul><ul><li>If no-one gets 50%, votes are redistributed </li></ul><ul><li>This continues until someone wins. </li></ul>
  • 6. Majority Systems (cont.) <ul><li>Supplementary Vote System (SVS) </li></ul><ul><li>Voters have first and second choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates with 50%+ of votes are automatically elected. </li></ul><ul><li>If no-one has 50%, all candidates are eliminated except for the top two. </li></ul><ul><li>The votes of losing candidates are redistributed to second choices. </li></ul>
  • 7. Majority Systems (cont.) <ul><li>The Second Ballot System </li></ul><ul><li>If the candidate does not win more than 50% of the vote, a second ballot takes place a week or two later. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the candidates with the least votes are eliminated. </li></ul><ul><li>This is used in France where candidates must gain 12.5%+ of the vote to stand in the second ballot. </li></ul>
  • 8. Advantages <ul><li>Second or third parties are more fairly represented. </li></ul><ul><li>If voters do not get their first choice, they are quite likely to get their second. </li></ul><ul><li>MPs represent more members of their constituencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Constituency links are maintained. </li></ul><ul><li>SVS was recommended by the PLANT report as likely to produce strong govt. </li></ul>
  • 9. Disadvantages <ul><li>Second or third parties can be over represented. </li></ul><ul><li>AV in particular is complicated for the voters. </li></ul><ul><li>Very small parties are not represented. </li></ul><ul><li>Second ballot system takes a long time to produce an outright result. </li></ul><ul><li>It is more expensive and time consuming. </li></ul>
  • 10. Proportional Systems <ul><li>List System (closed) </li></ul><ul><li>Voters only vote for a party, not a person. </li></ul><ul><li>The country is one large constituency. </li></ul><ul><li>The parties draw up a list of candidates and puts them in order. </li></ul><ul><li>Seats are allocated to parties according to the proportion of votes won. </li></ul><ul><li>These seats are then filled from the lists. </li></ul>
  • 11. Proportional Systems (cont.) <ul><li>The List system (open) </li></ul><ul><li>The country is divided into large regional constituencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Parties can stand as many candidates as there are seats. </li></ul><ul><li>Voters choose a number of candidates. </li></ul><ul><li>Seats are allocated according to the number of votes. </li></ul><ul><li>The most popular candidates win the seats. </li></ul>
  • 12. Proportional Systems (cont.) <ul><li>The Single transferable vote system </li></ul><ul><li>The country is divided into large regional constituencies. </li></ul><ul><li>The parties stand candidates for all the seats. </li></ul><ul><li>Voters put candidates in preference order. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who reach the quota are elected. </li></ul><ul><li>Votes of lowest candidates are transferred </li></ul>
  • 13. Advantages <ul><li>These systems are much fairer. </li></ul><ul><li>Small parties are given representation. </li></ul><ul><li>There are less wasted votes. </li></ul><ul><li>The open list and STV do maintain links with constituencies. </li></ul><ul><li>The closed list is the most directly proportional. </li></ul>
  • 14. Disadvantages <ul><li>In the closed list system, only the party chooses the candidates. </li></ul><ul><li>STV and open list are very complicated. </li></ul><ul><li>The constituencies are much bigger or non existent. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a much greater chance of a coalitional government. </li></ul><ul><li>Extremists may get a voice in Parliament. </li></ul>
  • 15. Hybrid Systems <ul><li>Additional Member System (AMS) </li></ul><ul><li>This is used in Scotland and Wales. </li></ul><ul><li>Voters vote for a constituency MP using First Past the Post. </li></ul><ul><li>They also vote for a party. </li></ul><ul><li>The Closed List System is used to allocate some seats to parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Parties that do badly with FPTP are compensated in through the PR seats. </li></ul>
  • 16. Hybrid Systems (cont.) <ul><li>AV+ </li></ul><ul><li>This was drawn up by the Jenkins Committee and has never been used. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of constituencies is reduced to 500. </li></ul><ul><li>Voters use AV to elect a constituency MP. </li></ul><ul><li>The also vote for regional MPs using the Open List System. </li></ul>
  • 17. Advantages <ul><li>In AMS, any unfairness of the FPTP election are compensated for with the PR seats. </li></ul><ul><li>It is fairer but keeps out extremists. </li></ul><ul><li>You have the advantages of two systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale coalition is less likely. </li></ul><ul><li>People may be more likely to vote as this is a fairer system. </li></ul>
  • 18. Disadvantages <ul><li>The systems are more complicated for the voter, particularly AV+. </li></ul><ul><li>Small parties are still not represented. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a greater chance of coalition and therefore weaker government. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no real promise that more people will vote because of this system. </li></ul>

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