Electoral Systems And how they work
Plurality Systems <ul><li>First Past the Post </li></ul><ul><li>Used in UK general elections. </li></ul><ul><li>The countr...
Advantages <ul><li>Easy for the voter to understand, cheap and inexpensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Links maintained with consti...
Disadvantages <ul><li>Parties coming consistently second or third are underrepresented. </li></ul><ul><li>Winning parties ...
Majority Systems <ul><li>(The winning candidate achieves more than 50% of the vote) </li></ul><ul><li>The Alternative Vote...
Majority Systems (cont.) <ul><li>Supplementary Vote System (SVS) </li></ul><ul><li>Voters have first and second choice. </...
Majority Systems (cont.) <ul><li>The Second Ballot System </li></ul><ul><li>If the candidate does not win more than 50% of...
Advantages <ul><li>Second or third parties are more fairly represented. </li></ul><ul><li>If voters do not get their first...
Disadvantages <ul><li>Second or third parties can be over represented. </li></ul><ul><li>AV in particular is complicated f...
Proportional Systems <ul><li>List System (closed) </li></ul><ul><li>Voters only vote for a party, not a person. </li></ul>...
Proportional Systems (cont.) <ul><li>The List system (open) </li></ul><ul><li>The country is divided into large regional c...
Proportional Systems (cont.) <ul><li>The Single transferable vote system </li></ul><ul><li>The country is divided into lar...
Advantages <ul><li>These systems are much fairer. </li></ul><ul><li>Small parties are given representation. </li></ul><ul>...
Disadvantages <ul><li>In the closed list system, only the party chooses the candidates. </li></ul><ul><li>STV and open lis...
Hybrid Systems <ul><li>Additional Member System (AMS) </li></ul><ul><li>This is used in Scotland and Wales. </li></ul><ul>...
Hybrid Systems (cont.) <ul><li>AV+ </li></ul><ul><li>This was drawn up by the Jenkins Committee and has never been used. <...
Advantages <ul><li>In AMS, any unfairness of the FPTP election are compensated for with the PR seats. </li></ul><ul><li>It...
Disadvantages <ul><li>The systems are more complicated for the voter, particularly AV+. </li></ul><ul><li>Small parties ar...
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Electoral systems

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Electoral systems

  1. 1. Electoral Systems And how they work
  2. 2. Plurality Systems <ul><li>First Past the Post </li></ul><ul><li>Used in UK general elections. </li></ul><ul><li>The country is divided into constituencies with a single MP. </li></ul><ul><li>Each voter has one vote. </li></ul><ul><li>The candidate with the largest number of votes wins the seat. </li></ul><ul><li>The party with the most seats forms the government. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Advantages <ul><li>Easy for the voter to understand, cheap and inexpensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Links maintained with constituencies. </li></ul><ul><li>One party usually wins outright and the government is therefore strong. </li></ul><ul><li>Parties have a chance to carry out their manifesto promises. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been proven to work effectively. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Disadvantages <ul><li>Parties coming consistently second or third are underrepresented. </li></ul><ul><li>Winning parties are overrepresented. </li></ul><ul><li>Winning governments usually only gain 40% of the total vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Voters in safe seats may not bother to vote. </li></ul><ul><li>The govt. may have less votes than its nearest rival. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Majority Systems <ul><li>(The winning candidate achieves more than 50% of the vote) </li></ul><ul><li>The Alternative Vote System (AV) </li></ul><ul><li>Voters rank candidates in order of preference. </li></ul><ul><li>Any candidate with 50%+ votes is elected. </li></ul><ul><li>If no-one gets 50%, votes are redistributed </li></ul><ul><li>This continues until someone wins. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Majority Systems (cont.) <ul><li>Supplementary Vote System (SVS) </li></ul><ul><li>Voters have first and second choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates with 50%+ of votes are automatically elected. </li></ul><ul><li>If no-one has 50%, all candidates are eliminated except for the top two. </li></ul><ul><li>The votes of losing candidates are redistributed to second choices. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Majority Systems (cont.) <ul><li>The Second Ballot System </li></ul><ul><li>If the candidate does not win more than 50% of the vote, a second ballot takes place a week or two later. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the candidates with the least votes are eliminated. </li></ul><ul><li>This is used in France where candidates must gain 12.5%+ of the vote to stand in the second ballot. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Advantages <ul><li>Second or third parties are more fairly represented. </li></ul><ul><li>If voters do not get their first choice, they are quite likely to get their second. </li></ul><ul><li>MPs represent more members of their constituencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Constituency links are maintained. </li></ul><ul><li>SVS was recommended by the PLANT report as likely to produce strong govt. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Disadvantages <ul><li>Second or third parties can be over represented. </li></ul><ul><li>AV in particular is complicated for the voters. </li></ul><ul><li>Very small parties are not represented. </li></ul><ul><li>Second ballot system takes a long time to produce an outright result. </li></ul><ul><li>It is more expensive and time consuming. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Proportional Systems <ul><li>List System (closed) </li></ul><ul><li>Voters only vote for a party, not a person. </li></ul><ul><li>The country is one large constituency. </li></ul><ul><li>The parties draw up a list of candidates and puts them in order. </li></ul><ul><li>Seats are allocated to parties according to the proportion of votes won. </li></ul><ul><li>These seats are then filled from the lists. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Proportional Systems (cont.) <ul><li>The List system (open) </li></ul><ul><li>The country is divided into large regional constituencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Parties can stand as many candidates as there are seats. </li></ul><ul><li>Voters choose a number of candidates. </li></ul><ul><li>Seats are allocated according to the number of votes. </li></ul><ul><li>The most popular candidates win the seats. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Proportional Systems (cont.) <ul><li>The Single transferable vote system </li></ul><ul><li>The country is divided into large regional constituencies. </li></ul><ul><li>The parties stand candidates for all the seats. </li></ul><ul><li>Voters put candidates in preference order. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who reach the quota are elected. </li></ul><ul><li>Votes of lowest candidates are transferred </li></ul>
  13. 13. Advantages <ul><li>These systems are much fairer. </li></ul><ul><li>Small parties are given representation. </li></ul><ul><li>There are less wasted votes. </li></ul><ul><li>The open list and STV do maintain links with constituencies. </li></ul><ul><li>The closed list is the most directly proportional. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Disadvantages <ul><li>In the closed list system, only the party chooses the candidates. </li></ul><ul><li>STV and open list are very complicated. </li></ul><ul><li>The constituencies are much bigger or non existent. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a much greater chance of a coalitional government. </li></ul><ul><li>Extremists may get a voice in Parliament. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hybrid Systems <ul><li>Additional Member System (AMS) </li></ul><ul><li>This is used in Scotland and Wales. </li></ul><ul><li>Voters vote for a constituency MP using First Past the Post. </li></ul><ul><li>They also vote for a party. </li></ul><ul><li>The Closed List System is used to allocate some seats to parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Parties that do badly with FPTP are compensated in through the PR seats. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Hybrid Systems (cont.) <ul><li>AV+ </li></ul><ul><li>This was drawn up by the Jenkins Committee and has never been used. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of constituencies is reduced to 500. </li></ul><ul><li>Voters use AV to elect a constituency MP. </li></ul><ul><li>The also vote for regional MPs using the Open List System. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Advantages <ul><li>In AMS, any unfairness of the FPTP election are compensated for with the PR seats. </li></ul><ul><li>It is fairer but keeps out extremists. </li></ul><ul><li>You have the advantages of two systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale coalition is less likely. </li></ul><ul><li>People may be more likely to vote as this is a fairer system. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Disadvantages <ul><li>The systems are more complicated for the voter, particularly AV+. </li></ul><ul><li>Small parties are still not represented. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a greater chance of coalition and therefore weaker government. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no real promise that more people will vote because of this system. </li></ul>

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