Bureaucracies
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  • 1. BUREAUCRACIESBUREAUCRACIESUS FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY &US FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY &UK CIVIL SERVICEUK CIVIL SERVICE
  • 2. ROLESROLES Similar rolesSimilar roles Both sit at the heart of their respective govtBoth sit at the heart of their respective govtadministrationsadministrations Both expected to find themselves in theBoth expected to find themselves in thepolicymaking process but to varyingpolicymaking process but to varyingdegrees…………………………………………degrees…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………..
  • 3. DEPT. HEADSDEPT. HEADS US – less prominent party figures; rarelyUS – less prominent party figures; rarelyhave a political career that extends beyondhave a political career that extends beyondthe patronage of the Presidentthe patronage of the President In contrast to UK no regular constituency orIn contrast to UK no regular constituency orcongressional duties and less sure of seeingcongressional duties and less sure of seeingtheir legislation on the statute booktheir legislation on the statute book Ministers in UK advised by permanentMinisters in UK advised by permanentcareer civil servants/ permanent secscareer civil servants/ permanent secs US – heads, undersecs & assistant secsUS – heads, undersecs & assistant secsappointed by new administrationappointed by new administration
  • 4. COMPOSITIONCOMPOSITION US – largest part of federal govtUS – largest part of federal govtincludes variety of depts, offices,includes variety of depts, offices,agencies & commissions each withagencies & commissions each withtheir own interests and agendastheir own interests and agendas Bureaucrats dealing with day to dayBureaucrats dealing with day to dayissues permanent like in the UKissues permanent like in the UK Rarely sacked but both subject to jobRarely sacked but both subject to joblosseslosses
  • 5. POLICYMAKINGPOLICYMAKING Both civil servants & federalBoth civil servants & federalbureaucrats give precise meaning tobureaucrats give precise meaning topolicy – US – IEAs provide focus inpolicy – US – IEAs provide focus ineach specific area and may acteach specific area and may actindependently of executive depts egsindependently of executive depts egsCIACIA
  • 6. AGENCIFICATIONAGENCIFICATION UK – like in the US, since 1980sUK – like in the US, since 1980sgrowth of semi-autonomous agenciesgrowth of semi-autonomous agencies– Next Steps– Next Steps Other similar developments – growthOther similar developments – growthof political appointees in the UKof political appointees in the UK Spoils system in the USSpoils system in the US
  • 7. OTHER COMPARISONSOTHER COMPARISONS US – decentralised bureaucracy-federalUS – decentralised bureaucracy-federalbureaucracy operates under the formalbureaucracy operates under the formalauthority of the President as chiefauthority of the President as chiefadministrator – difficult & unwieldyadministrator – difficult & unwieldy Impact of separation of powers – number ofImpact of separation of powers – number ofIRCs created and funded by Congress.IRCs created and funded by Congress.President may appoint members but cannotPresident may appoint members but cannotinterfer with their responsibities as laid downinterfer with their responsibities as laid downby Congress or dismiss themby Congress or dismiss them Counter bureaucracies and Iron trianglesCounter bureaucracies and Iron triangles