Health issuesAIDS AIDSAIDS = acquired immuno-deficiency syndromeIt is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Health issuesAIDS The global hazard• In 2005 over 43 million people lived with HIV.• In 2006, 3 million people died of AIDS; 5 million more were infected.• Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst affected region: it has 10% of the global population but 60% of the world’s HIV cases.• 75% of all women with HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa.
Health issuesAIDS Sub-Saharan Africa (1)• In 2005 25 million people were living with HIV; there were 3.1 million new infections and 2.3 million deaths.• Only 800,000 people received anti-retroviral (ARV) therapy, a treatment which prolongs life, but is not a cure. The best country was Uganda where 40% of cases received ARV therapy.
Health issuesAIDS Sub-Saharan Africa (2) Country Life expectancy Life expectancy without AIDS, 2010 with AIDS, 2010 Botswana 74 27 Lesotho 67 36 South Africa 69 37 Zimbabwe 71 35
Health issuesAIDS Impact of AIDS (1)• The diversion of effort and income into care and medicine, and into funeral costs.• The withdrawal of children from school to work on the land.• The creation of large numbers of orphans.• The over-burdening of grandparents with childcare.
Health issuesAIDS Management of AIDS (1)• Research is underway to find a vaccine but this may be a remote hope.• Blood is screened for HIV antibodies before it is used for transfusions.• Use of ARV therapy is expensive, but cheaper generic versions of the drugs are being developed. Africa is not the only area of the world which cannot afford to treat its population.
Health issuesAIDS Management of AIDS (2) WHO Region Estimated number of ARV coverage (%), people needing ARV 2005 therapy, 2005 Africa 4,700,000 17 Americas 465,000 68 Europe 230,000 12 Western Pacific 970,000 14 South East Asia 150,000 27 TOTAL 6,500,000 20 Source: WHO 2006
Health issuesAIDS Management of AIDS (3)The key is to change the behaviour of people by:• Education about risks, and how to protect themselves.• Education to raise aspirations and improve lifestyles.
Health issuesAIDS The future?Many people now believe that the spread of HIV/AIDS is rooted in problemsof poverty, food and livelihood insecurity, sociocultural inequalities,together with poor support services and infrastructure. It is also believedthat although responses to HIV/AIDS have grown and improved over thepast decade, they still do not match the scale or pace of a steadilyworsening epidemic. UNAIDS itself said, in a report published in 2005, that‘the AIDS epidemic continues to outstrip global efforts to contain it.’