As revision 2012


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Revision for AQA Communication and Culture Comm1 exam

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  • Really good powerpoint if you are studying communication aned culture, gives some great structures on how to answer questions
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As revision 2012

  1. 1. Communication and Culture
  3. 3. Achieved Roles; a role in which a person assumes voluntarily e.g. Employee, friend, girlfriendAscribed Roles; a role in which a person is given e.g. Daughter, student, granddaughterSemantic Memory; is our shared or cultural memory. We learn to read people in certain waysEpisodic Memory; unique to you, makes you an individual personality.
  6. 6. GOFFMANGoffman argues that we all put on a persona, and that everyone is acting. We use props and stages throughout our everyday lives.We use cynical and sincere performances.Cynical-fakeSincere-not fakeWe also use masks.
  7. 7. Ego StatesCharacteristic set patterns of behaviourNatural Child instinctive/curious/childish/emotionalAdapted Child flirty/lying/deceivingNurturing Parent nurturing/boosts self esteem/’no blame’ cultureControlling Parent punishing/belittling/superior/low self esteem
  8. 8. Attitudes-our tendency to react favourably or unfavourably to people, objects or situations.Beliefs-our views of existence; what we think is trueValues-the worth you play on things, events and people. Values are the bedrock of all behaviour. Societies values are found in the media. WHAT YOU WANT TO BEIdeal selfRealistic Self WHAT YOU ACTUALLY AREThe bigger the gap between your ideal self and realistic self, the lower a persons self esteem.Dissonance; when information about the self comes in and conflicts with the idea of the self
  9. 9. BARRIERSPsychological BarriersHow we perceive other people, determines the way we approach them and how we communicate with themOrganisational BarriersThe structure of organisations themselves. A good organisation is having clearly defined and smoothly operating channels of communication between its different members and departmentsMechanical BarriersA fault in the communication channelSemantic BarriersInvolves problems of meaning at each end of the communication process
  10. 10. Non-Verbal CommunicationDEFINITION: Bodily communication, other than words and language Functions Forms -Feedback Body Language; -Non-verbal Leakage - Posture -Regulate Speech - Facial Expression (5 Universal) -Reinforce Speech - Orientation -Emotional Carrier - Proxemics (personal space) -Replaces Speech - Hand Gestures (kinesics) -Self presentation - Dress and Appearance - Head Movements - Eye Contacts Paralanguage - Fillers - Pace -Tone - Volume - Accent - Silence -Pause
  11. 11. A code is a system of communication which requires three elements;1) Rules e.g. Rules of grammar2) Signs e.g. Anything that expresses a meaning3) Shared Understanding e.g. A group that shares the same knowledge and understanding of rules and signs within that specific groupPOLYSEMIC when something has more than one meaningSEMANTIC the study of meanings, and how meanings of words can change or adopt other meaningsSEX IS OUR BIOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTION.GENDER IS CREATED BY OUR CULTURAL EXPERIENCESCODE SWITCHING the ability to switch dialect e.g. Cheryl Cole in different contexts
  12. 12. LANGUAGEDEFINITION: Language is a symbolic sign system that requires a code and shared meaning between sender and receiver to be effective. explaining -informing -creative-displace (bounce back and forth between past and present)-entertain -phatic talk-slang -dialect (regional)-jargon -sociolect (class/group)-idiolect (personal) -taboo
  13. 13. Context and audience dictate our language/the words we use.Our language can change due to;-regional/cultural identity-role/status-intellect-power/value-attitudes SIGNIFIER SIGNIFIED-age ICONIC-gender DENOTATION CONNOTATION INDEXICAL SYMBOL ENCODING DECODING SHARED MEANING OF CODE AND ITS CONNOTATIONS
  14. 14. Restricted Code; used mostly in group situations with a limited and predictable vocabularyElaborated Code; used mostly by professionals e.g. Teachers, a wider range of vocabulary and less predictableLANGUAGE AND GENDERWords have hidden power relations behind them. These power relations are usually about status, power and gender. Language has a relationship with all three.It has been argued that gender is socially constructed. This idea suggests that although we are born male and female biologically, we learn to behave in a male and female way. Gender is created by our cultural experiences. One of the chief ways in which we experience culture is through our use of language. It follows that language is likely to be a key factor in differentiating the way in which gender is constructed and how males and females learn to behave. Dale Spencer argues that language reflects the dominance of men in our society. Patriarchy is the notion that power
  15. 15. A n c h o r a g e ; me t h o d o f e n s u r i n g a s p e c i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a n i ma g eC h a n n e l ; me t h o d w e u s e t o p a s s o n a me s s a g eC o n v e n t i o n ; a r u l e /s t y l e /m o d e l f o r o r g a n i s i n g s i g n s i n a t e x tI c o n ; s i g n wh i c h h a s a d i r e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s o me t h i n gI n d e x ; a s i g n wh i c h h a s n o c o n c r e t e l i n k t o t h e t h i n g i t r e p r e s e n t sS y mb o l ; a s i g n w h i c h h a s n o a s s o c i a t i o n t o t h e t h i n g i t r e p r e s e n t sP a r a d i g m; a s e t o f s i g n sS y n t a g m; t h e c o mb i n a t i o n o f s i g n s f r o m a p a r a d i g m t o c r e a t e a me s s a g eI d e o l o g y ; a s y s t e m o f b e l i e f s o f h o w l i f e s h o u l d b e l i v e d
  16. 16. My t h ; w a y o f e x p l a i n i n g /s i m p l i f y i n g /o r g a n i s i n g o u r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e wo r l d - ma k i n g o u r s h a r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s e e m n a t u r a l o r t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d .S e mi o t i c s ; s t u d y o f s i g n sMo d e l ; me s s a g e i s r e a d o r i n t e r p r e t e d i n a d i a g r a mma t i c f o r mE n c o d e ; t o c o n v e r t a me s s a g e i n t o a me a n s c a p a b l e o f b e i n g t r a n s mi t t e dDe c o d e ; t o c o n v e r t a n e n c o d e d me s s a g e i n t o a f o r m w h i c h c a n b e u n d e r s t o o dBa r r i e r ; a n y t h i n g wh i c h i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h e p r o c e s s o f c o mmu n i c a t i o nF e e d b a c k ; m e s s a g e (s ) w e r e c e i v e b a c k f r o m t h e r e c e i v e rMo d e o f a d d r e s s ; t h e t e r m d e s c r i b e d i n wh i c h a t e x t s p e a k s t o i t s a u d i e n c eRe g i s t e r ; d e s c r i b e s t h e v a r i a t i o n s
  17. 17. Re a d e r ; t h e a c t i v e i n t e r p r e t e r o f a me s s a g eR e a d i n g ; i n t e n d e d /p r e f e r r e d r e a d i n g . Ne g o t i a t e d r e a d i n g . Op p o s i t i o n a l r e a d i n g .Se n d e r ; t h e o r i g i n a t o r o f c o mmu n i c a t i o nR e c e i v e r ; s o me o n e t o w h o m a me s s a g e i s d i r e c t e dT e x t ; a n y t h i n g wh i c h c a n b e r e a d f o r me a n i n gDi s c o u r s e ; a s y s t e m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n b a s e d o n t h e r e a l i t y o f c o mmu n i c a t i o n i n s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t sE n t r o p y ; a c o mmu n i c a t i o n t h a t i s h i g h o n n e w i n f o r ma t i o n a n d t h i s i s h i g h l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e i s a i d
  18. 18. NVC Gestures T.V/Magazines Media Language Politics FashionConform Sign Systems Values Shock Religion CULTURE! Individuality Food/drink Music Norms Dance -Rules and Regulations Multi-Cultural -Manners Belief -Politeness Customs/Traditions Behaviour -Bonfire night -Christmas Being British -Prom
  19. 19. Culture is a big group of peopleCulture affects our identity, our sense of selfCulture affects out identity in the same way as a group doesMainstream Culture white, young, able bodiedMinority age Culture ethnic minorities disability British-ness gender asylum seekers Identity sexuality Signs non English speakers -the flag; pride/belonging wealth -food; chippy/curry/pie -national anthem -music; Britpop; oasis
  20. 20. Language-elaborated code; no taboo-restricted code; common-phatic talk-power and value language-signifier/signified-code switchingLanguage teaches us the meaning of symbols;-symbolic code systemSpoken word. Symbolic code-signs with rules and shared understanding.Body LanguageFacial expressions, gesture, posture, orientation, proxemics, hand movements, eye contact.ParalanguageTone, volume, pitch, pace, pause, accent.Mass MediaTV, film, magazines, internet, music. We assimilate American Value. Power and status.Customs, norms, patterns of lifeProm superficial materialistic American Dream Fairytale night for girls
  21. 21. Popular Culture High Culture-Visceral.......appeals to base emotions -Diversity and choice-Voyeuristic........nosey -Educated and elite-Mainstream -Lots of creativity-Fake, superficial, shallow, formulaic, artificial -Improving civilization-exploitation of audience -Educational...Morally uplifting-stifles creativity -Values; education, brain-big audiences development, challenging-homogenous......all the same -High art, poetry, literature,-ephemeral........easily forgotten opera, classical opera, ballet-It has to appeal to everyone so it has to be dumbed down........simplified, base interests, trivialised, sensationalised.-Ideological-Celebritized Folk Culture -Organic -Produced by the people, for the people -Traditional
  22. 22. Semiotic(study of signs)AnalysisQuestion 3 of the Exam1) Identify the Paradigms of the textse.g. Images, body language, colour, layout, dress codes, logo, font, language.2) State the dominant Signifiers(the label we give a sign) List 4 e.g. Clothing, body language, colour, font3) For each of the four dominant signifiers state the;Denotation Literal meaning of something e.g. Describe what is there in one sentenceConnotation Mental associations of somethingMyth Cultural connotations e.g. StereotypesIdeological Gender, self esteem, power and status4) Sytagm an overall meaning of paradigms5) Conclusion show off bring in barriers oppositional readers
  23. 23. Process Analysis (Laswell)More mathematical (formulaic)1) Identify the sender encodes message preferred reading2) Identify the audience/receiver decodes message3) Identify the form the message takes (Channel)e.g. Leaflet, flyer, posterAnd why the sender chose to use it4) Identify the purpose persuade entertain change behaviour change attitudes5) Barriers x3 mechanical Bad juxtapositioning/there could be no mechanical barriersproblems with semanticmeaning psychological Attitudes/values/beliefsbreakdown Personal E.g. Language codes.........because language codes need shared understanding