Lesson 3 philosophy – key words

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Lesson 3 philosophy – key words

  1. 1. Philosophy – key words By the end of this lesson you will have: Understand the principles of philosophical proof for the existence of God. Understand the following essential terminology: A-priori, a-posteriori, analytic, synthetic, inductive, deductive
  2. 2. Philosophical Proof Proof Direct proof Proof from premisesOlivia has broken her Pythagoras’ theorem.leg can be proved by an x-ray.• Premise: a statement upon which an argument is based from which a conclusion is drawn.
  3. 3. Philosophical Proof• Philosophers tend to use premises for their arguments• Why?• The philosopher wants the atheist to be able to follow his line of argument. Therefore he starts with unexceptional statements that everyone would agree with and then tries to convince a reasonable person that belief is necessary.
  4. 4. Proof from Premises• Example• P: The world is beautiful.• C: God must have made such a beautiful world.
  5. 5. Direct Proof• The arguments could be direct proof, for example someone has a vision.• However, this is less convincing for some.
  6. 6. Specialist Vocabulary• Analytic statement:• A statement true by definition.• E.g: Frozen water is ice• Synthetic statement:• A statement in which its truth or falsity depends on evidence that has to be collected.• E.g: My computer is on.• TASK: Card sort – which statements are analytic and which are synthetic?
  7. 7. Specialist Vocabulary• A priori knowledge• Knowledge that is gained from logical reasoning without or prior to experience.• A posteriori knowledge:• Knowledge that is gained after (post) experience.• TASK: Card sort – which statements are analytic and which are synthetic?
  8. 8. What have you noticed?• Analytic + a-priori• Synthetic + a-posteriori
  9. 9. Inductive Arguments• An argument in which the premises only support the conclusion, making the conclusion likely, but not definate
  10. 10. Inductive Arguments• P1: The sun rose today• P2: The sun rose yesterday• C: The sun will rise tomorrow.Comments:
  11. 11. Inductive Arguments• P1: Huw is Welsh• P2: Huw is a good singer• C: All Welsh men sing well.• Comments:
  12. 12. Inductive Arguments• In inductive arguments, you can accept all the evidence, but still deny the conclusion, without contradicting yourself.• For example, in a crime all evidence might point to a suspect. He is most likely to be guilty. However, even if all the evidence is correct, there is still the possibility that he is innocent.• Fugitive clip
  13. 13. Inductive Arguments• Monty Python.• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrzMhU_4 m-g
  14. 14. Inductive Arguments• Which of the following words can be attributed to inductive arguments? And why?• Analytic• Synthetic• A-priori• A-posteriori
  15. 15. Deductive Arguments• An argument in which if you agree with the premises you have to accept the conclusion to be true.
  16. 16. Deductive Arguments• P1: All queens of England are female• P2: Queen Elizabeth I was a queen of England• C: Queen Elizabeth I was female.
  17. 17. Deductive Arguments• P1: All men are mortal.• P2: Einstein was a man.• C: Einstein was mortal.• If you agree with the premises, the conclusion has to be true (otherwise you would contradict yourself).• The conclusion follows logically, of necessity.• Note: The premise may not be ‘true’ but the form of the argument is nevertheless ‘valid’.
  18. 18. Deductive Arguments• Which of the following words can be attributed to deductive arguments?• Analytic• Synthetic• A-priori• A-posteriori
  19. 19. Strengths and Weaknesses• Complete the table by copying the sentences into the correct place.• Check your answers ...
  20. 20. Inductive Arguments Strengths Weaknesses• They rely on experience • They rely on accepting that may be universal, the nature of the or at least may be evidence. testable. • They demand• They are flexible, there overwhelmingly good is more than one reasons for accepting possible conclusion. that the conclusion is• They do not demand most likely. that we accept • Alternative conclusions definitions as fixed. may be just as convincing.
  21. 21. Deductive Arguments Strengths Weaknesses• They do not depend on • They lead to apparently variable or logically necessary misunderstood conclusions. experience. • They depend on whether• It accepts that words we accept the premises as and definitions have analytically true. fixed and agreed • They can only say that if meanings. there is a God we might be• There are no able to make certain alternative conclusions. claims about him.
  22. 22. Homework - ReviseLearn the key vocabulary from today’s lesson.You will have a short test next lesson. • Analytic • Synthetic • A-priori • A-posteriori • Inductive • Deductive
  23. 23. Philosophy – key words By the end of this lesson you will have: Understand the principles of philosophical proof for the existence of God. Understand the following essential terminology: A-priori, a-posteriori, analytic, synthetic, inductive, deductive

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