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    Introductory Philosophy Booklet Introductory Philosophy Booklet Document Transcript

    • AS Religious Studies Introduction to Philosophy of Religion Examination date: Monday (am) May 13th 2013! Teacher: Zoe Hancock Email: zhastaff@aquinas.ac.ukName _________________________________________ 0
    • Contents PageThe exam, Topics 1Specification 2Level descriptors 5Performance descriptions 8Past examination questions 9Trigger words 12Glossary 13Resources 19Topics – Revision ChecklistTopic 1 2 3 4Cosmological ArgumentTeleological ArgumentEvil and SufferingReligious Experience1= You have prepared revision notes2= You can produce revision notes from memory (80% accuracy)3= You can answer some of the past questions on this topic from memory4= You can answer any question on this topic with confidence (this should be checked two weeks before exams) 1
    • The Specification Topic  Issues 1. The existence of God (i) –Cosmological Arguments The cosmological argument Whether the strengths of based on ‘first cause’, the cosmological arguments motion and contingency outweigh their weaknesses including reference to Aquinas Whether the arguments fail to establish the probability The kalam version with of God’s existence reference to both Craig and Miller Whether the arguments are unconvincing Additional cosmological arguments, including Leibniz’ Whether the cosmological principle of sufficient arguments demonstrate that reason the existence of God is more probable than the non- Arguments against the existence of God. cosmological argument, including those of Hume, Russell and Kenny 2
    • Topic  Issues 2. The existence of God (ii) –Teleological Arguments The teleological argument How strong is the based on evidence of order, teleological argument in design and purpose as proving the existence of originated by Plato, God? Aristotle and Aquinas How persuasive is the Developments of the teleological argument? argument, including Paley (watchmaker analogy) and Whether the challenge of the anthropic and aesthetic the counter arguments principles make the teleological argument ineffective Arguments against the teleological, including Does the evidence from reference to Hume, Kant science support or and the challenges discredit the teleological presented by natural argument? selection and the problem of evil 3
    • Topic  Issues 3. Evil and Suffering The challenge of evil and Whether there is an suffering to belief in the adequate religious answer to existence and nature of God the problem of evil. based on the ‘inconsistent triad’ and concept of God as Whether animal, innocent, Creator and immense suffering are strong proofs against the The nature of evil existence of the God of (natural/physical; moral), Classical Theism including appropriate exemplification How successful is each of the stated theodicies in Particular problems caused responding to the problem of by animal, innocent and evil? immense suffering Whether either of the The Augustinian and theodicies is more convincing Irenaean theodicies, than the other in offering a including both classical and solution to the problem of modern presentations and evil unresolved issues of animal suffering, suffering of the Whether both of the innocent and extent of theodicies fail to explain the suffering existence of suffering in a world supposedly created and controlled by God 4
    • Topic  Issues 4. An introduction to ReligiousExperience: Mysticism The nature of mystical What are the challenges for experience mysticism in an empirical world? Types of mystical experience, including How can the experiences of reference to William James mysticism affect religious belief and practice? Mysticism in practice: a study of one religious Should the challenge of mystic chosen by the difficulties relating to candidate, e.g. St Teresa of authenticity be allowed to Avila; Meister Eckhart; devalue a mystical Isaac Luria; Rumi; Shankara experience? Problems of objectivity and How can mysticism support authenticity: the challenges religious belief? to mysticism Does mysticism have any value in the modern world? 5
    • Level DescriptorsAO1: Select and demonstrate clearly relevant knowledge and understanding through the use ofevidence, examples and correct language and terminology appropriate to the course of study. Level AO1 Descriptor Marks 7 A thorough answer in the time available; an accurate and relevant 30-28 treatment of the topic, showing thorough knowledge and understanding. Effective use is made of well-chosen evidence and examples where appropriate. Form and style of writing are highly suitable. Material is organised clearly and coherently. Specialist vocabulary is used accurately. Good legibility and high level of accuracy in spelling, grammar and punctuation. 6 A fairly full answer in the time available, including key facts and ideas, 27-25 presented with accuracy and relevance, along with evidence of clear understanding. Apt use is made of evidence and examples where appropriate. Form and style of writing are suitable. Material is organised clearly and coherently. Specialist vocabulary is used accurately. Clear legibility and high level of accuracy in spelling, grammar and punctuation. 5 Addresses the question; mainly accurate and largely relevant knowledge; 24-20 demonstrates understanding of main ideas. Some use is made of evidence or examples where appropriate. Form and style of writing are suitable. Most of the material is organised clearly and coherently. Some accurate use is made of specialist vocabulary. Satisfactory legibility and accuracy in spelling, grammar and punctuation. 4 A partially adequate treatment of the topic; mainly accurate and largely 19-15 relevant knowledge; basic or patchy understanding; little use made of relevant evidence and examples. Form and style of writing are suitable in some respects. Some of the material is organised clearly and coherently. Some accurate use is made of specialist vocabulary. Satisfactory legibility and accuracy in spelling, grammar and punctuation. 3 Outline answer. Knowledge limited to basics, or low level of accuracy and 14-10 or/relevance. Limited understanding. Evidence and examples lacking or barely relevant. May be disorganised. Specialist vocabulary is used sparingly and/or imprecisely. Legibility and accuracy in spelling, grammar and punctuation are adequate. 2 A bare outline with elements of relevant accurate information showing a 9-5 glimmer of understanding, or an informed answer missing the point of the question. Specialist vocabulary is used sparingly and/or imprecisely. Legibility and accuracy in spelling, grammar and punctuation are barely adequate. 1 Isolated elements of approximately accurate information loosely related 4-1 to the question. Little coherence and little correct use of specialist vocabulary. Legibility and accuracy in spelling, grammar and punctuation are such that meaning is unclear. 0 No accurate, relevant knowledge or understanding demonstrated. 0 6
    • AO2: Critically evaluate and justify a point of view through the use of evidence and reasoned argument.Level AO2 Descriptor Marks 7 A thorough response to issue(s) raised in the time available. Different 15-14 views are analysed and evaluated. The argument is strongly supported by reasoning and/or evidence, with an appropriate conclusion being drawn. Form and style of writing are highly suitable. Material is organised clearly and coherently. Specialist vocabulary is used accurately. Good legibility and high level of accuracy in spelling, grammar and punctuation. 6 A fairly full response to issue(s) raised in the time available. Different 13-12 views are considered, with some critical analysis or comment. The argument is adequately supported by reasoning and/or evidence. Form and style of writing are suitable. Material is organised clearly and coherently. Specialist vocabulary is used accurately. Clear legibility and high level of accuracy in spelling, grammar and punctuation. 5 Addresses the main issue(s). More than one view is mentioned (though not 11-10 necessarily in a balanced way), with limited analysis or comment. The argument is partially supported by reasoning and/or evidence. Form and style of writing are suitable. Some of the material is organised clearly and coherently. A little accurate use is made of specialist vocabulary. Satisfactory legibility and accuracy in spelling, grammar and punctuation. 4 Some grasp of the main issue(s) is shown; analysis or comment is limited. 9-7 An attempt is made to construct an argument, partially supported by some reasoning and/or evidence. Little or no recognition of more than one view. Form and style of writing are suitable in some respects. Some of the material is organised clearly and coherently. Some accurate use is made of specialist vocabulary. Satisfactory legibility and accuracy in spelling, grammar and punctuation. 3 Issue(s) only partly understood and appreciated. Some limited attempt 6-5 made at analysis or comment. Reasoning is simplistic and basic. Evidence is minimal. May be disorganised. Specialist vocabulary is used sparingly and/or imprecisely. Legibility and accuracy in spelling, grammar and punctuation are adequate. 2 Some brief attempt made to address the question in a very simple way, 4-3 with little understanding, analysis or reasoning. Specialist vocabulary is used sparingly and/or imprecisely. Legibility and accuracy in spelling, grammar and punctuation are barely adequate. 1 Some isolated points relevant to the question. Little coherence and little 2-1 correct use of specialist vocabulary. Legibility and accuracy in spelling, grammar and punctuation are such that meaning is unclear. 0 No valid relevant reasoning 0 7
    • Performance descriptions Assessment objective 1 Assessment objective 2Assessment Select and demonstrate clearly relevant knowledge and Critically evaluate and justify a point of view throughobjectives understanding through the use of evidence, examples, the use of evidence and reasoned argument. and correct language and terminology appropriate to the course of study. In addition, for synoptic assessment, A level candidates should relate elements of their course of study to their In addition, for synoptic assessment, A level candidates broader context and to aspects of human experience. should demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the connections between different elementsA/B Candidates characteristically: Candidates characteristically:boundary a) select accurate and relevant material a) construct a coherent and well-organised argumentperformance b) explain clearly relevant features or key ideas, supported by examplesdescriptors supported by examples and/or sources of evidence b) and/or sources of evidence c) use accurately a range of technical language and c) identify strengths and weaknesses of the argument terminology d) use accurate and fluent expression. d) show evidence of being familiar with issues raised by relevant scholars, or a variety of views, where appropriate.E/U Candidates characteristically: Candidates characteristically:boundary a) select limited but relevant material a) demonstrate minimal organisation and/or limitedperformance b) show basic understanding of relevant features or coherencedescriptions key ideas, supported by occasional examples and/or b) offer mainly descriptive answers with little sources of evidence argument, justification or c) show limited accurate use of technical language c) evaluation and terminology. d) use language and expression that lacks precision. 8
    • Philosophy and Religion Examination (RS2 PHIL)Monday am May 13th 20131hour 15 minutes written paper25% of your A-LevelFour structured questions will be set, of which you will be requiredto answer two.90 marks available (45 per question)Each question is divided into two parts(a) (AO1) This part tests your knowledge and understanding (30 marks)(b) (AO2) This part tests your skills of reasoning and evaluation (15 marks)You should spend no more than 25 minutes answering part (a) and 12minutes answering part (b) 9
    • Past Examination QuestionsMay 2012Answer two questions1. (a) Examine the arguments against the cosmological argument for the existence of God. [30] (b) ‘The cosmological argument fails to demonstrate that God’s existence is probable.’ Assess this view. [15]2. (a) Examine the arguments against the teleological argument for the existence of God. [30] (b) ‘The teleological argument for the existence of God is a strong argument.’ Assess this view. [15]3. (a) Explain how the Irenaean theodicy addresses the problem of evil. [30] (b) ‘There has never been a successful theodicy in responding to the problem of evil.’ Assess this view. [15]4. (a) Explain why some people question whether mystical experiences are authentic. [30] (b) ‘A mystical experience should not be devalued by the challenge of authenticity.’ Assess this view. [15]January 2012Answer two questions1. (a) Examine the following ideas in the cosmological argument: first cause, motion, contingency, and sufficient reason. [30] (b) ‘The strengths of the cosmological argument clearly outweigh its weaknesses.’ Assess this view. [15]2. (a) Examine how the teleological argument for the existence of God has developed. [30] (b) ‘Scientific evidence strongly supports the teleological argument.’ Assess this view. [15] 10
    • 3. (a) Explain why the existence of evil poses a challenge to a belief in the existence of God. [30] (b) ‘Religious solutions to the problem of evil fail to convince anyone.’ Assess this view. [15]4. (a) Explain what is meant by mystical experience. [30] (b) ‘Mysticism can never have a positive effect on religious belief and practice.’ Assess this view. [15]May 2011Answer two questions1. (a) Examine how the cosmological argument attempts to prove the existence of God. [30] (b) ‘The cosmological argument for the existence of God is unconvincing.’ Assess this view. [15]2. (a) Examine how the teleological argument attempts to prove the existence of God. [30] (b) ‘The teleological argument for the existence of God is unpersuasive.’ Assess this view. [15]3. (a) Explain what religious believers mean by the problem of evil. [30] (b) ‘The Irenaean theodicy solves the problem of evil for religious believers.’ Assess this view. [15]4. (a) Examine the life and work of one religious mystic that you have studied. [30] (b) ‘There is no place for religious mystics in the world today.’ Assess this view. [15]January 2011Answer two questions1. (a) Explain the cosmological argument for the existence of God. [30] (b) ‘The cosmological argument simply fails to prove God’s existence.’ Assess this view. [15]2. (a) Explain the teleological argument with reference to Aquinas, Paley and the anthropic and aesthetic principles. [30] (b) ‘The teleological argument for the existence of God is not a strong argument, so it fails.’ Assess this view. [15] 11
    • 3. (a) Outline the Augustinian and Irenaean theodicies. [30] (b) ‘There is no adequate religious answer to the problem of evil.’ Assess this view. [15]4. (a) Examine the various types of mystical experiences, with reference to the work of William James. [30] (b) ‘Mystical experiences have no place in the modern empirical world.’ Assess this view. [15]June 2010Answer two questions1. (a) Examine the arguments against the cosmological argument. [30] (b) ‘The cosmological argument is still a convincing proof for God’s existence.’ Assess this view. [15]2. (a) Explain the teleological argument. [30] b) ‘Scientific evidence discredits the teleological argument.’ Assess this view. [15]3. (a) Outline what is meant by the inconsistent triad and explain the particular problems caused by animal suffering and immense suffering. [30] (b) ‘The immensity of suffering proves there is no God.’ Assess this view. [15]4. (a) Describe, with reference to one mystic you have studied, what is meant by ‘mysticism in practice’. [30] (b) ‘Religious belief and practice should never be affected by mysticism.’ Assess this view. [15]January 2010Answer two questions1. (a) Outline the cosmological argument with reference to Aquinas, Leibniz and the Kalam version. [30] (b) ‘The strengths of the cosmological argument outweigh its weaknesses.’ Assess this view. [15]2. (a) Examine the arguments against the teleological argument for the existence of God. [30] (b) ‘The arguments against the teleological argument have made it completely ineffective .’ Assess this view. [15] 12
    • 3. (a) Explain how Augustine’s theodicy addresses the problem of evil. [30] (b) ‘The Augustinian theodicy successfully resolves the problem of evil.’ Assess this view. [15]4. (a) Explain why some question the authenticity of mystical experiences. [30] (b) ‘The challenge of authenticity should not be allowed to devalue a mystical experience.’ Assess this view. [15]June 2009Answer two questions.1. (a) Examine two versions of the cosmological argument for the existence of God. [30] (b) ‘The cosmological argument demonstrates that God’s existence is probable.’ Assess this view. [15]2. (a) Examine the origins and development of the teleological argument for the existence of God. [30] (b) ‘The teleological argument for God’s existence is persuasive.’ Assess this view. [15]3. (a) Give an account of the Augustinian and Irenaean theodicies. [30] (b) ‘There is no justification for the existence of suffering in a world supposedly created and controlled by God.’ Assess this view. [15]4. (a) Explain what is meant by mystical experience. [30] (b) ‘Religious belief is totally dependent on mystical experience.’ Assess this view. [15] 13
    • Trigger WordsToo often candidates attempt to answer a question which they think is there or forwhich they have prepared rather than the one which is actually set. Describing whenevaluating is required or explaining when considering critically is demanded are commonexamples of failure to recognise the exact instruction of a question.Knowledge of the precise meanings of trigger words is essential if candidates are toachieve their optimum performance. The following is an attempt to describe what isrequired by the main trigger words in the Religious Studies papers.AO1Analyse Explain, compare and point out the complexity of different components of an issue, process, argument or proposition and consider to what degree they are supported by evidence, related, are logically consistent or able to be tested empirically.Define Write down the precise meaning of the term and all that term implies, using examples where appropriate.Describe If the trigger word is modified by briefly, identify andGive/Write an account write a few sentences on each of the main factual elements of the required content; if the trigger word is modified by in detail, write as much factual information as possible on the precise term, activity or concept.Examine Write out, with some details or examples, the essential elements of the concept, theory or reason and establish the relationship or links between them; but if the trigger word is modified by critically see Assess above.Explain Demonstrate understanding by exploring reasons, usually with the use of examples.Indentify Write a little about each specific, salient feature.Illustrate Provide examples to explain a statement.Outline/Summarise Write a concise account of the main features, incidents or principles, omitting examples and detailed or peripheral information.AO2Assess Appraise a specific statement by weighing up two or moreDetermine opinions or appraise a defined aspect through a review ofEvaluate its strengths and weaknesses and conclude with a reasoned personal judgement.Consider critically how Elucidate the pros and cons of a particular view or issue byfar/to what extent/the stating and explaining the evidence, and then reach avalidity reasoned judgement about the accuracy, validity or truthDiscuss how far/to of that view or issue.what extent 14
    • Glossary of Key TermsTerms which are used in the specification are printed in bold print. It isparticularly important to be familiar with these, as they may be used onexamination question papers.Please note however the brief definition provided in these lists is merely ageneral introduction and should not be treated as sufficient for the answering ofquestions asked about the specific terms as listed.a posteriori On the basis of experience; used of an argument, such as the cosmological argument, which is based on experience or empirical evidencea priori Without or prior to experience; used of an argument, such as the ontological argument, which is based on acquired knowledge independent of or prior to experienceaesthetic An appreciation of beautyaesthetic principle The belief that humans have an inherent appreciation for things such as art, music, literature and nature, which aids nothing to our survival as a species but is purely for our own pleasure and enjoymentagnosticism The state of not knowing or asserting the impossibility of knowing if God existsanthropic principle The concept that all fundamental features of the universe are necessary as they are for the origin, development and maintenance of human life; term used in the teleological argumentatheism The view that there is no GodAquinas 13th Century Dominican priest, commonly regarded as the most influential philosopher and theologian of the Roman Catholic Church. Famous works include Summa Theologica and Summa Contra Gentiles.Aristotle Greek philosopher, originally student of Plato, but later developed his own distinct systems of philosophy, ethics and metaphysics. Also tutored Alexander the Great. Favoured deductive and inductive reasoning and laid the foundations for much of modern scientific forms for classification and investigation. One of the most important figures in the founding of ideas that have influenced the development of Western civilisationAugustine Early Church Father, Augustine of Hippo, converted to Christianity relatively late on in his life. Great intellectual force responsible for the formalisation of what is now accepted as Christian orthodoxy in terms 15
    • of belief and ethics. Famous works include his Confessions and The City of God.Augustinian theodicy Argument based on ideas that evil is caused by created beings, not God, and that God is justified in permitting evil to occurauthenticity When something is genuine, real or true.beneficent Performing good acts; helping peopleclassical theism The generally accepted ideas, prevalent in the main Western religions (Christianity, Islam, Judaism) relating to God and his characteristics, i.e. that God is omnibenevolent, omnipotent and omniscientcontingency Something which may or may not be—the opposite of necessity; term used in the cosmological argumentcosmological argument Argument for the existence of God based on the existence of the universe; commonly associated with Aquinas’ concepts of motion, causality and contingencyCraig William Lane Craig, one of the proponents of the modern day Kalam aspect of the Cosmological Argument for the existence of Godcritique An examination or report on another’s ideas, usually in terms of a negative responsedeductive proof Argument constructed on factually true premises reaching a valid, inevitable and certain conclusiondesign Relating to the teleological argument, the suggestion that the world in which we live demonstrates both order and purpose, leading to a conclusion that this could not have happened by random chance but demonstrates evidence of design and therefore is the result of a designerefficient cause That which is capable of bringing about a desired resultemotional A feeling, usually intense or strong in nature, such as love or fearempirical Based on what is experienced or seenempiricism The view that knowledge is best gained through experience, observation and/or experimentepistemic distance A distance of knowledge. A phrase used by John Hick in his development of Irenaeus’ theodicy to refer to the distance of knowledge between God and humankindeschatological verification Meaning that all things will be made clear or ‘verified’ in the end times or ‘eschaton’. Can also mean that a person will find out the truth of the matter after deathevil That which produces suffering; the moral opposite of goodexistence of God The belief that ‘God exists’ in a state that can be 16
    • experienced, felt, proved or quantifiedfirst cause The concept of the necessary existence of an original Being to cause the existence of the universe; term used in the cosmological argumentfive ways Thomas Aquinas’ five-fold basis of proof for the existence of God arguing for a Prime Mover, First Cause, Necessary Being, Absolute Value and Divine Designerfree will The concept that a rational being is able to completely freely determine their own futures or destinies through true freedom in making decisions, both ordinary and moralFree Will Defence Attempt to reconcile the reality of evil with the existence of God by arguing for the necessity of evil in order to enable full and genuine human freedomHick John Hick, modern day philosopher of religion. Champion of religious pluralism; also developed Irenaeus’ TheodicyHume David Hume, 18th Century philosopher, whose work relating to empiricism was hugely influential on the twentieth century logical positivists. His Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (published after his death) are particularly influential on the development of the philosophy of religion.illusion An idea or belief which is not trueinconsistent triad This idea proposes that God cannot be both omnibenevolent and omniscient and allow evil to existinductive proof Argument constructed on possibly true premises reaching a logically possible and persuasive conclusionIrenaean theodicy Argument based on ideas that human beings were not created perfect and remain imperfect and that evil is necessary to permit human freedom of choiceIrenaeus Early Church Father (2nd Century). Developed a theodicy which put part of the blame on the existence of evil and suffering onto God. Irenaeus saw evil and suffering as necessary in the development of humans towards moral perfection.James, William 19th/20th Century psychologist renowned for investigations into religious experience and mysticismkalam argument Argument for the existence of a personal Creator based on the idea of the universe being finite and having a beginning; a teleological argumentKant 18th century philosopher, critic of rational arguments for the existence of God, preferring the moral argument to contend for God’s existence and life after 17
    • deathKenny In his work The Five Ways (1965) Kenny refuted Aquinas’s arguments by making reference to scientific advances in understanding how the universe works. He showed how Newton’s Law of Motion disproved Aquinas’ First Way.Leibniz 17th/18th century philosopher and mathematician, whose principle of sufficient reason supports the cosmological arguments for the existence of GodLuria, Isaac 16th century Jewish mystic who was influential in the development of the Kabbalist tradition within the Western worldMeister Eckhart Circa 13th century Christian mysticMiller Ed Miller, one of the proponents of the modern day Kalam aspect of the Cosmological Argument for the existence of Godmoral evil Suffering caused by human actionsmystic One who practises mysticismmysticism Experiences or systematic meditation which cause a heightened awareness of the divinemotion The concept that, within the universe, all things are moving from states of potentiality to actualitynatural evil Suffering caused by natural environmental phenomenanatural selection The process whereby favourable traits within a species are bred into the genetic make-up of each generation and the less favourable are bred out. Sometimes referred to as ‘survival of the fittest’Natural Theology Philosophical system based on the natural world and reason, such as Aquinas’ Five Waysobjectivity The ability to make judgements based upon facts and not influenced by personal beliefs or feelingsomnipotent All-powerful; one of the traditional attributes of the God of Classical Theismomniscient All-knowing/seeing; one of the traditional attributes of the God of Classical Theismorder and regularity A key feature upon which the teleological argument for the existence of God rests – that both order and regularity are observable phenomena within the experiential universe, leading to inference that this is a deliberate feature of some intelligent being, responsible for the workings of the universePaley 18th century Archdeacon of Carlisle, famed for his Watchmaker analogy, which forms part of the teleological argument for the existence of God 18
    • Phillips 20th century philosopher who articulated (contra Irenaeus) that it could never be morally justifiable to hurt someone in order to help themphysical evil Suffering which is brought about via the physical worldPlato Greek philosopher, considered one of the fathers of Western thought, he was the tutor to Aristotle. Originally a pupil of Socrates (all that we know of Socrates is preserved within the writings of Plato, and others, as Socrates himself did not write philosophical texts). Plato’s theory of the Forms or Ideas has been hugely influential in the development of philosophy. His analogy of the cave is a useful illustration of how he viewed the relationship of the material world to this realm of the Formsprivation Deprivation or absence of something; term used in Augustinian theodicyprobability The likelihood of something happening or being trueproblem of evil The philosophical notion that evil should not exist if God possesses the characteristics traditionally ascribed to himProcess Theology Philosophical system based on emphasis of God’s immanence and denial of God’s omnipotence; associated with A.N. Whitehead and David Griffiths’ process theodicypurpose The reason why something is in existence or being donerationalism View that true knowledge is gained only through reasonreligious experience An experience which is denominated by certain characteristics, as identified by the scholars such as James, Swinburne, Moonan, et al.Rumi 13th Century Persian Sufi mystic produced many influential works of both prose and poetryRussell Bertrand Russell; 20th century philosopher who introduced the expression ‘philosophical logic’. Rejected the cosmological argument on the grounds that there was no need to ask where the universe came from but that we should just accept its existence as a ‘brute fact’.Schleiermacher Prominent German theologian and philosopher of the 18th and 19th Centuries. Responsible for producing an effective critique against the Augustinian Theodicyseminal presence An Augustinian reference to the idea that, biologically, the whole human race was present ‘within Adam’s loins’Shankara Circa 8th Century Indian philosopher, was the first philosopher to consolidate the doctrine of Advaita 19
    • Vedanta. His teachings are based on the unity of the soul and Brahman, in which Brahman is seen as without attributes.soul-making A concept within the traditions of the Irenaean theodicy that describes how suffering helps humans develop morally (from God’s ‘image’ into his ‘likeness’ – cf Genesis 1:26)St Teresa of Avila 16th century Spanish mystic and Carmelite nun. Her writings were produced primarily for teaching purposes although they are now regarded as some of the most influential mystical texts within the Catholic traditionSuffering The experience, or showing the effects, of something which is evil or bad animal Part of natural world, lives and moves but, in this context, refers to non-human immense Huge magnitude of scale; can also refer to intensity innocent pure and guilt freeSufficient reason The principle suggested by Gottfreid Leibniz that all things need a full and proper explanation or ‘sufficient reason’ in order to explain why they existsupernatural Those forces which cannot be rationally explained by scienceSwinburne Modern day philosopher Richard Swinburne, influential in his work on the existence of God, religious experience and miraclesteleological argument Argument for the existence of God based on observation of design and purpose in the worldTennant 19th/20th century philosopher who developed forms of aesthetic arguments to infer the existence of an intelligent designer behind the Universe. Within his book, Philosophical Theology, he also advocated a form of the anthropic principle (although he did not use the term itself) to support his arguments for God’s existencetheodicy Argument justifying or exonerating God; term used in relation to the existence of evil and sufferingwatchmaker analogy Famous analogy of William Paley, relating the intricacies and design of a watch (which therefore implies an intelligent watchmaker) to the similarly observed intricacies of the phenomenal universe, therefore implying an intelligent ‘universe-maker’, i.e. God 20
    • ResourcesBlackburn, S. (2001), Think: A Compelling Introduction to Philosophy (OUP)978-0192854254Bowie, R.A. (2004), AS/A2 Philosophy of Religion and Religious Ethics for OCR. StudyGuide (Nelson Thornes) 0-7487-8081-5Clarke, P.J. (2001), Questions About God: a guide for A/AS Level students, 2nd ed.(Nelson Thornes) 0-7487-6554-9Clarke, P.J. (2002), Examining Philosophy and Ethics: Answers for A Level (NelsonThornes) 0-7487-6009-1Davies, B. (1993), An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion (OUP) 0-19-289235-5Dewar, G. (2002), AS and A Level Religious Studies: Philosophy and Ethics throughdiagrams (OUP) 0-19-914873-2Hill, D.J. and Rauser, R.D. (2006), Christian Philosophy A-Z (EUP) 0-7486-2152-0Jeys, H.F. (2004), Philosophy of Religion for AS students (UWIC) 1-902724-75-5Jones, G., Cardinal, D. and Hayward, J. (2005), The Philosophy of Religion (HodderMurray)0-7195-7968-6Jordan, A., Lockyer, N., & Tate, E. (2001), Philosophy of Religion for A Level, 2nd ed.(Nelson Thornes) 0-7487-6760-6Luhman, R. (1995), The Problem of Evil (Abacus) 1-89865-308-9Quinn, P. (2005), Philosophy of Religion A-Z (EUP) 0-7486-2054-0Stannard, R. (1999), The God Experiment (Faber & Faber) 0-5711-9623-3Swinburne, R. (1988), Evidence for God (Mowbray) 0-264-67124-4Thompson, M. (1997), Teach Yourself Philosophy of Religion (Hodder & Stoughton)0-340-68837-8Tyler, S.K. and Reid, G. (2002), Advanced Religious Studies (Philip Allan Updates)0-86003-751-7 21
    • Vardy, P. (1999), The Puzzle of God, 3rd ed. (Fount) 0-00-628143-5Vardy, P. (1996), The Puzzle of Evil, 2nd ed. (Continuum) 1-55778-747-6Vardy, P. and Arliss, J. (2003), The Thinkers Guide to Evil (John Hunt Publishing)1-903816-33-5Williams, P.S. (1999), The Case for God (Monarch) 1-85424-454-XWilson, B. (ed.) (2003), Simply Philosophy. Guided Readings (EUP) 0-7486-1823-6Some useful websiteswww.dialogue.org.uk[Dialogue, a journal of religion and philosophy]www.discovery.org[The Discovery Institute, promotes the Intelligent Design concept]www.epistemelinks.com/index.asp[links to many useful websites]www.faithquest.com/home.cfm?main=docs/philosophers/philosophers.cfmwww.hawking.org.uk[Professor Hawkings ideas on the universe]www.jcu/Philosophy/gensler/ethics.htm#REwww.leaderu.com/offices/billcraig/menus[William Craigs website]www.philosophers.co.uk[The Philosophers Magazine]www.philosophyonline.co.uk[student website of Gareth Southwell of Swansea College]www.philosophypages.comwww.rsweb.org.uk[links to limited number but useful websites]www.seop.leeds.ac.uk[Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]www.sparknotes.com/philosophywww.talkorigins.org 22
    • [scientific responses to creation/evolution debate]www.utm.edu/research/iep[useful articles and texts]www.ucsb.edu/fscf/library/plantinga[Alvin Plantingas website] 23