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Essay compare and contrast different healthcare approaches at different stages of development
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Essay compare and contrast different healthcare approaches at different stages of development


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  • 1. Compare and contrast different healthcare approaches at different stages of development. 15 In many countries which are less economically developed such as Southern Asia, South Africa and Brazil they adopt an ‘emergent’ healthcare approach. This means that healthcare is viewed as an item of personal consumption, and the state intervention is minimal. In this sense, patients pay directly to the physicians and the doctors act as solo entrepreneurs. An example of an emergent health care system is South Africa whereby a hierarchical structure is evident. Healthcare is available to the rich, particularly secondary care.However, mission hospitals have opened in places such as Mount Coke whereby healthcare is available to the poor but the health ward workers have limited training.In this sense, the poor are not receiving as good a level of care as the rich. The UK, as an M.E.D.C adopts a National Health Service approach. This means that the health facilities are largely owned by the state, although private ownership is still existent. Whilst the physicians work as solo entrepreneurs for their individual practice, they are ultimately paid by government funding which comes through taxation. The NHS is the largest employer in the UK at 1.3million employees and has a budget of around $90billion a year. This means that although the country is more developed, and the GDP is higher, all strata of society can access both primary and secondary care. However, there are other approaches in other MEDCs and newly developing countries. The USA adopts a pluralistic approach where, although the majority of health care is private and act as capital institutions, there is some state intervention to provide affordable healthcare for all. This is particularly evident in ‘Obamacare’ introduced in 2010 to award more government funding to healthcare. On the other hand, Cuba acts through a socialised approach whereby all the facilities are publicly owned and no private healthcare is available. Being loyal to their communist values, Cuba train medics with public funding through 21 medical schools. This has had a great impact on their health as Cuba’s life expectancy is the second highest in the Caribbean. It is clear that development, in most cases, relates to healthcare approaches as MEDCs tend to adopt some form of state intervention for healthcare. With the exception of countries such as China and Cuba, LEDCs tend to hail emergent healthcare as an approach which has an impact on the poorest in society.