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Proposal Defense Oral Presentation

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  • 1.
  • 2. I. Introduction II. Literature Review III. Methodology
  • 3. Research Background Lukang Statements of Problem Purposes of Research
  • 4.
    • Nearly 91% of the citizens traveled at least once domestically in 2007, and the average number of trips per person was 5.57 .
    • (R.O.C. Tourism Bureau, 2008)
  • 5.
    • The percentage of Taiwanese citizens who preferred visiting cultural and historical sites as a cultural experiencing activity was increasing .
    • (R.O.C. Tourism Bureau, 2008)
  • 6.
    • Distinct benefits of historical tourism include the potential of a clean industry and a valuable source of income and employment .
    • (Orbasli, 2000)
  • 7.
    • Interpretation allows visitors to generate a better understanding of the history and significance of events, people, and objects with which the site is associated.
    • (Alderson & Low, 1996)
  • 8.
    • Interpretation is one of the key factors to a sustainable tourism .
    • (Harris, Griffin, & Williams, 2002)
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. Primary historic heritage 1 Tertiary heritage sites 6 Valuable heritage sites 7 Designated Heritage Sites in Lukang
  • 12.
    • Only few of the past studies have examined the need for interpretative services and the value of these services to visitors in heritage sites .
  • 13.
    • By probing the visiting patterns and the perceptions of the tourists, more could be considered to increase satisfaction of the tourists, and may further increase revisitation .
  • 14.
    • to use the contingent valuation method (CVM) to estimate the willingness-to-pay (WTP) of the tourists for interpretative service in Lukang, and to analyze the WTP determinants
  • 15.
    • To determine:
    • the perceptions of tourists on interpretative service in Lukang
    • the tourists’ willingness-to-pay for interpretative service in Lukang
    • the WTP value for interpretative service in Lukang
    • the WTP determinants
    • implications and suggestions
  • 16. Interpretative Service Contingent Valuation Method
  • 17.
    • Interpretation is an educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships to people about the places they visit and the things they see, which in turn improves the quality of visitor experience.
    • (Tilden, 1977)
  • 18.
    • The goal of interpretation is to increase visitor awareness , promote learning , appreciation and understanding of places so that tourists develop empathy towards heritage, conservation, culture and landscape.
    • (Stewart, Hayward, & Devlin, 1998)
  • 19.
    • Interpretation services benefit both the heritage sites and tourists and draw public support by enhancing visitors ’ experiences and educating visitors in appropriate behaviors to conserve the historical sites.
    • (Hall & McArthur, 1993)
  • 20. Personal/ Attended Non-personal/ Unattended
  • 21.
    • Personal Interpretative Service
    diverse audience needs more interaction entertaining and memorable notice problems
  • 22.
    • The contingent valuation method (CVM) is a standard approach to measuring economic values of non-market goods , such as recreation resources, wildlife, and environmental quality goods.
    • (Hanemann, 1994; Lee & Han, 2002)
  • 23.
    • Elicitation techniques:
    • bidding game approach
    • payment card approach
    • dichotomous choice approach (DC)
    • open-ended elicitation technique
  • 24.
    • bidding game approach
    • Yes Yes Yes No
    •  market-like
    • high cost and time-consuming
    • starting–point bias
    $100 $200 $300 $400
  • 25.
    • payment card approach
    •  reduces starting-point bias
    •  may not reflect true value
    •  order bias
    $ 1 0 0 $ 2 0 0 $ 3 0 0 $ 4 0 0
  • 26.
    • dichotomous choice approach (DC)
    •  easy to answer
    •  starting-point bias
    •  ‘ yea-saying’ problem
    $ 300 Yes No
  • 27.
    • open-ended elicitation technique
    • If……, how much are you willing to pay for _______?
    •  reduces starting-point bias
    •  convenient/less time-consuming
    •  reflect true value
    •  non-response
  • 28.
    • Possible biases:
    • starting-point bias
    • sequencing effect
    • information effect
    • hypothetical bias
    • strategic bias
  • 29. Research Procedures Instrument Data Collection Data Analysis
  • 30. Designing questionnaire Conducting formal study Analyzing data Revising the questionnaire Collecting Data
  • 31.
    • questionnaire survey
    Part 1 Personal Interpretative Services Part 2 Lukang Traveling Experiences Part 3 Willingness-to-Pay for Personal Interpretative Service in Lukang Part 4 Personal Information
  • 32. Participants Tourists who have visited Lukang (on-site) Questionnaires 500 copies Time 10 minutes Duration 2 months Elicitation approach Open-ended
  • 33.
  • 34. Box-Cox double-hurdle model Yes No Interpretative perceptions Lukang traveling experience Socio-economic status Interpretative perceptions Lukang traveling experience Socio-economic status
  • 35. Box-Cox double-hurdle model Level of WTP (price) Interpretative perceptions Lukang traveling experience Socio-economic status
  • 36.
    • Decision to participate in the market (D)
    • (1)
    • D* : participation variable
    • Z : vector of characteristics
    • α : vector of parameters
    • u : error term
  • 37.
    • The level of participation (Y)
    • (2)
    • Y i : answer to the open-ended valuation question
    • X : vector of individual’s characteristics
    • β : vector of parameters
    • V i : error term
  • 38.
    • D i * = α + β 1 SEX + β 2 INC + β 3 FRE + β 4 IMP + V i
    • D* : participation variable
    • α , β 1 , β 2 , …., β 4 : coefficients
    • V i : error term
    • SEX : gender
    • INC : income
    • FRE : number of previous visits to Lukang
    • IMP : importance of interpretation
  • 39.
    • Thank you for your attention!