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Notes lecture 2 aqu2203 201213
 

Notes lecture 2 aqu2203 201213

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    Notes lecture 2 aqu2203 201213 Notes lecture 2 aqu2203 201213 Presentation Transcript

    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan LECTURE 2TYPES OF FISH BREEDING TECHNIQUES IN FISH PRODUCTION © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 2 Lecture 1 TYPES OF FISH BREEDING TECHNIQUES IN FISH PRODUCTION Objective : 1) To expose students to the different types of breeding for stock improvement 2) To develop understanding about fish breeding techniques in fish production. © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 3 Introduction Types of Breeding Crossbreeding Hybridization Monosex Culture Chromosome Manipulation © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 4 Lecture 1 TYPES OF FISH BREEDING TECHNIQUES IN FISH PRODUCTION Learning Outcome : At the end of lecture, students should be able to : Explain the breeding techniques in fish production Diferentiate the different breeding techniques in fish production © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 5 IMPROVEMENTS IN AQUACULTURE• IMPROVEMENT IN REPRODUCTION• IMPROVEMENT IN GROWTH AND NUTRITION• IMPROVEMENT IN HEALTH• IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY AND VALUE• CONSERVATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES• IMPROVEMENT IN BIOMEDICINAL VALUE INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 6 Increase ProductivityEnvironmental Manipulation Genetic Manipulation Culture System Feed Additives – hormone, © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT probiotic, chemicals
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 7 GENETIC IMPROVEMENT IN FISH BREEDING A method to increase the quality or to obtain the desired traits using various selected breeding techniques Involves genetic manipulation in which the traits can be modified and inherit © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 8 BREEDING Main Aim : Increase quality of stocks (stock improvement) Produce high commercial value and profitable cultured fish © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 9 Increase productivity which can benefit the consumers Example. Fish that has high growth rates Solving problems in occurrence of pathogens Example. Production of disease resistant and hardy fish Reduce inbreeding in wild and cultured population © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 10 Improvements in quality of stock through management of broodstock and seedlings - Able to select and identify quality broodstock and seed for breeding Creation of new export comodity in the industry Example. Production of fish with new characteristics © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 11 BREEDING Traits that are desired in fish production: High growth rate High dressing percentage (more meat less waste) Resistant to disease Hardy (able to tolerate harsh condition) Good food conversion ratio (FCR). Variability in body colours and patterns © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 12 BREEDING There are several types of fish breeding techniques commonly used in fish production : Crossbreeding Hybridization Sex Reversed Population (Monosex) Chromosome Manipulation © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • 13Mating or crossing 2 different strains or varieties of the samespeciesAlso known as Intraspesific HybridizationA breeding program that increases the breeding value - resulted in production of new strain X Same species (goldfish) but different strain
    • 14Application of Crossbreeding : Increase performance of the entire stocks Producing progeny that has intermediate performance obtained from the broodstocks Produce and increase the quality or performance of a new pure stock (pure breed). To exploit heterosis Heterosis : increase in performance of progeny that exceed the performance of the broodstock.
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 15 Mostly applied in ornamental fish breeding program More focused on the production of colours, patterns and shapes © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 16 Define as mating of two different species Also known as Interspesific Hybridization. Main Purpose : To combine the main traits of both species. X © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT Breeding of 2 different species (goldfish) and carp
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 17 Conducted between species that are closely related - same family or same genus. Breeding can occur naturally or induced using hormone Hybrids are generally intermediate (can be distinguished between parents). However hybrids are biased towards one parent Example of hybridization : Hybrid Striped Bass X White Bass Hybrid Channel Catfish X Blue Catfish Nile Tilapia X Blue Tilapia © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 18 Production of a population with single sex characteristics Conducted to control production of certain sex for growth. Avoid occurrence of breeding during grow-out. Main purpose of Monosex production in a population advantage of certain sex desire for certain sex avoid reproduction during culture avoid aggressive behaviour which normally exist during reproduction © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 19 Perform due to interest towards a certain gender which has a better performance compared to the other gender Produced using hormone tratment All produced seeds will be either 100% male or 100% female XX OR XY 100% 100% Female Male © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 20 Feminization Changes in sex of individuals to female through administration of estrogen hormones Hormone Seed Female Estrogen Example : salmon Masculinization Changes in sex of individuals to male through administration of andogen hormones Hormone Seed Male Androgen Example : Tilapia, channel catfish © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 21 Example : Tilapia - male are more desired due to faster growth rate compared to female Salmon – female are more desired due to bigger size and faster growth rate Channel catfish Channel catfish Tilapia Salmon © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 22Manipulation of the whole genome of an organismat the chromosomal level to obtain desiredcharacteristics. Manipulation is done to the whole chromosome set and not at the DNA strands Main Purpose : production of sterile fish Production of monosex population Attain higher growth rate Applied to eggs or spermatozoa or fertilized eggs © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 23 3 Main TecniquesPolyploidy Androgenesis Production of seed in which allProduction of seed with genetic information aremore that 2 sets of inherited from malechromosome Production of seed in which all genetic information are Gynogenesis inherited from female © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 24 Seeds produced will have higher growth rate Seeds produced are generally sterile (production of triploid fish) Androgenesis dan Gynogenesis techniques are commonly used for the production of monosex strain © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 25 Production of individuals with greater than the normal number of chromosomes. Leads to the addition in the numbers of chromosomes (more than 2 sets) Retention of the polar body through disturbance at the mitosis stage during zygote development 2nd polar body restored temperature shock pressure shock N Production of sterile fish Haploid cell - no gonad development N © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT egg 2N
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 26 Induction techniques normally used : Temperature shock - cold shock for tropical fish - heat shock for temprate fish Pressure shock Main purpose : Produced seeds that is able to grow continually and never slow down to mature or reproduce Also used for production of steril hybrids © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 27Concept in Production of Triploid Fish N N X fertilization egg sperm Temperature or Pressure Shock NNN © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT Number of chromosome : 3 set
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 28 Benefits of Polyploidy Higher growth rates Better feed conversion Higher survival Higher turnover Resistance to disease Suitable for grow out Example : Oyster, Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Hemibragus nemurus (baung), African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 29 N N N 2nd polar body 2nd polar body N N Normal 2nd polar body 2NFertilization N N N 2nd polar body 2nd polar body N N N Triploidy 2nd polar body N N 3N N N 2nd polar body N N 2nd polar body N 3NTetraploidy N N N N N 4N © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 30GYNOGENESIS AND ANDROGENESIS Production of individuals by limiting inheritance to the maternal or paternal parent Progeny only inherit genetic material either from the male or female parent Key concepts in gynogenesis and androgenesis : Eliminating the genetic contribution of one parent or the other Interupting the normal cause of events in newly fertilized or activated eggs Restoration of a 2N state allowing normal development to proceed © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 31GYNOGENESIS AND ANDROGENESIS Application of Gynogenesis and Androgenesis : Can be utilized to ascertain mechanisms of sex determination Production of monosex populations Production of genetically identical clones (high levels of homozygosity) © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 32GYNOGENESIS AND ANDROGENESIS Application of Gynogenesis and Androgenesis : Restoration of endangered or extinct species from cryopreserved sperm Androgenesis can be used as stringent measure of egg quality in aquaculture breeding program Gynogenesis can be useful method to generate fully inbred lines © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 33GYNOGENESIS Production of individuals by limiting inheritance to the maternal parent (all maternal inheritance) Uniparental inheritance. All chromosome derived from female broodstock N 2nd polar body Haploid cell Used for sex control N egg Gynogenesis produce 100% female (sex chromosome XX) © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 34GYNOGENESIS Eggs are fertilized with sperm which does not contribute any genetic information to the embryo Genetic material of the males are destroyed by exposing the sperms to UV irradiation UV Ray N UV ray disrupt the DNA in sperm causing the DNA unable to function in the egg © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 35 XX XY X Polar Body UV Light Genetic material of sperm destroyed under UV rays X Temperature or Pressure Shock to the fertilized egg XX © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT Female
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 36ANDROGENESIS Production of individuals by limiting inheritance to the paternal of the parent (all paternal inheritance) Uniparental inheritance. All chromosome derived from male broodstock Sperms fertilized eggs which does not contribute any genetic information to the embryo Genetic material of the females are N destroyed by exposing the eggs to UV 2nd polar body irradiation Haploid cell - also lead to the destruction of the N RNA, amino acid synthesis and egg mitochondrial DNA © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 37ANDROGENESIS Can be very useful in situation like : Males have shorter generation times than female Storing of inbred lines in the form of cryopreserved sperm Recovering genotypes from cryopreserved sperm © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 38 CHROMOSOME MANIPILATION : ANDROGENESIS XX XY X IrradiationGenetic material of eggdestroyed underUV/gamma rays X or Y Temperature or Pressure Shock XX or YY © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT Female Male
    • AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 39 N N N 2nd polar body 2nd polar body N N Normal 2nd polar body 2NFertilization N N DNA of sperm destroyed N 2nd polar body 2nd polar body N N Meiotic 2nd polar bodyGynogenesis N N 2N DNA of egg destroyed N 2nd polar body NAndrogenesis 2nd polar body N N 2N © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT