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Biology form 5 useful microorganisms
 

Biology form 5 useful microorganisms

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    Biology form 5 useful microorganisms Biology form 5 useful microorganisms Presentation Transcript

    • Decomposition of dead organic remains is carried out by a group of saprophytic bacteria and fungi, which are called decomposers. Decomposers break down the dead remains of plants and animals and waste products of animals and release nutrients into the soil. BACTERIA BACTERIA FUNGI FUNGI
    • Nitrogen is an important element in the synthesis of plant and animal proteins. Atmospheric nitrogen cannot be absorbed directly by plants. Plants can only absorb nitrogen in the form of ammonium, nitrite or nitrate ions. Nitrogen fixing bacteria such as Nostoc sp. , which lives freely in the soil, and Rhizobium sp. which lives in the root nodules of leguminous plants, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium compounds (NH3 and NH4 ) through a process called nitrogen fixation. NH3 Nitrates, in particular, are taken up by the roots of plants and converted into plant proteins. When the animals eat the plants, the organic nitrogen is transferred into the body of animals and becomes animal proteins.
    • Waste matter, and plants and animals which die, decompose and are converted into ammonium compounds. The cycle is balanced by a continuous return of nitrogen to the atmosphere by denitrifying bacteria. These bacteria break down nitrates and release nitrogen back into the atmosphere. Ammonium compounds are converted into nitrites and nitrates by nitrifying bacteria through a process called nitrification. Ammonia is converted into nitrites (NO2−) by Nitrosomona sp. Nitrites are converted into nitrates (NO3-) by Nitrobacter sp. Nitrobacter sp. Nitrobacter sp.
    • Microorganis ms also play an important role in the alimentary canal of termites. Population of mutualistic protozoans such as Trichonympha sp. are present in the alimentary canal of termites. They secrete cellulase which is required by the termites to digest cellulose. Termites feed mainly on wood which contains cellulose. However, they are unable to produce the enzyme cellulase to digest the cellulose. Trichonympha sp.
    • Useful symbiotic bacteria are found in the human colon. The useful microorganisms synthesise vitamins B12 and K which are often deficient in the human diet.
    • ANTIBIOTICS
    • Poliomyelitis is a viral disease that can affect nerves and can lead to partial or full paralysis.
    • a. Sewage is the waste matter from households and industries. b. It is reach in organic matter, bacteria and other microorganisms. c. Sewage from various households & industries is piped into large settling tanks in sewage treatment plants. d. During the waste treatment process, millions of aerobic bacteria present in the sewage decompose organic matter in the presence of oxygen.
    • e. Most of the sludge that e. Most of the sludge that settles at the bottom of settles at the bottom of settling tanks is pumped into settling tanks is pumped into the sedimentation tanks where the sedimentation tanks where fermentation takes place. fermentation takes place. f. Here, anaerobic bacteria f. Here, anaerobic bacteria continue to decompose continue to decompose the organic matter to the organic matter to methane & carbon dioxide, methane & carbon dioxide, along with water & other along with water & other minerals. minerals. g. The methane g. The methane gas is collected & gas is collected & used as fuel for used as fuel for the engine the engine pumps in the pumps in the sewage plants sewage plants h. The digested h. The digested sludge is rich in sludge is rich in nitrates & nitrates & phosphates and phosphates and when it is dried it when it is dried it can be used as can be used as fertilizers by fertilizers by farmers. farmers. SLUDGE
    • The commercial use of microorganisms in food processing is based on the process of fermentation. Fermentation is aa Fermentation is metabolic process metabolic process whereby electrons whereby electrons released from released from nutrients are nutrients are ultimately ultimately transferred to transferred to molecules obtained molecules obtained from the from the breakdown of those breakdown of those same same nutrients nutrients YEAST
    • a) Beer is brewed from barley grains. a) Beer is brewed from barley grains. b) In commercial beer-making, two commonly b) In commercial beer-making, two commonly used yeast species are S. cerevisiae and S. used yeast species are S. cerevisiae and S. carlsbergensis (brewer yeast). carlsbergensis (brewer yeast). a) Wine is made by the fermentation of grape a) Wine is made by the fermentation of grape juices. juices. b) During fermentation, ethanol & carbon b) During fermentation, ethanol & carbon dioxide are released. dioxide are released. Soy sauce is made from fermented Soy sauce is made from fermented soya beans by the action of fungi. soya beans by the action of fungi.
    • a) Yogurt is made from the fermentation of milk using a) Yogurt is made from the fermentation of milk using bacteria, especially Lactobacillus bulgarius and bacteria, especially Lactobacillus bulgarius and Streptococcus thermophillus. Streptococcus thermophillus. b) These bacteria convert sugar into lactic acid which b) These bacteria convert sugar into lactic acid which coagulates casein (milk protein). coagulates casein (milk protein). c) This creates the thick creamy yogurt c) This creates the thick creamy yogurt LB LB a) Cheese is made by mixing bacteria (etc, a) Cheese is made by mixing bacteria (etc, streptococcus sp.) with the enzyme rennin. streptococcus sp.) with the enzyme rennin. b) The bacteria ferment milk sugar to lactic acid. b) The bacteria ferment milk sugar to lactic acid. c) The solid part of the milk (the curt) is separated c) The solid part of the milk (the curt) is separated from the liquid portion (the whey). from the liquid portion (the whey). d) The curds are pressed and moulded and then left d) The curds are pressed and moulded and then left to mature or ripen. to mature or ripen. S tt S Rennin Streptococcus sp
    • a) BIOGAS a) BIOGAS
    •  Gasohol or biofuel is a combination of 10% ethanol and 90% petrol.  Sugar cane and maize are the main sources of gasohol. The cane or maize is crushed and sucrose is extracted to form a sweet syrup.  This syrup contains glucose and fructose which when left to ferment by adding yeast,will produce ethanol.The ethanol is distilled before it is used.  Gasohol is used widely as fuel or as an alternative to petrol in some countries.