• CQI was originally developed by Walter Shewhart, and is
often referred to as the "Shewhart Cycle". It was taken up
and promoted effectively from the 1950s by the famous
Quality Management authorityW. Edwards Deming, and
is consequently known by many as "the Deming Wheel".
Plan carefully what is to be done
Phase 1 - Identify the Opportunity
Phase 2 - Analyze the Current Process
Phase 3 - Develop the Optimal Solution
Carry out the plan
Phase 4 - Implement Changes
Check the Results.
Did the plan work as intended
or were the results different?
Phase 5 - Study the Results
Act on the results by identifying what
worked as planned and what didn't.
Phase 6 - Standardize the Solution
Phase 7 - Plan for the Future
DMAIC is an acronym for five (5) interconnected phases:
Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control. It refers
to a data-driven quality strategy for improving processes.
• DMAIC (duh-may-ick)
DMADV consists of five (5) interconnected phases: Define,
Measure, Analyze, Design andVerify. It is a data-driven quality
strategy for designing products and processes, It is also an
integral part of a Six Sigma Quality Initiative.
There are for the 7 BasicTools which we are going
Generally they can be subdivided into:
mathematical statistical Tools
The concept behind the seven basic tools came
from Kaoru Ishikawa, a renowned quality expert
According to Ishikawa, 95% of quality-related
problems can be resolved with these basic tools.
Basic Quality control tools
1. Cause and effect diagram
2. Control Charts
3. Check sheets
5. Pareto charts
6. Scatter Diagram
7. Flow Charts
a. Deployment flow charts
b. Linear or activity flow charts
It’s a diagram that demonstrates
the relationship between Effects
and the categories of their causes
The Arrangement of the Diagram lets it look
like a fishbone it is therefore also called fish-
Its is used for RCA
Cause bCause a
Cause dCause c
Statistical tool, showing whether
A process is in control or not
Taking samples of a process and detect
possibility of process being out of control
A Histogram is a bar graph
usually used to present frequency data
Histograms provide an easy way to evaluate the
distribution of Data over different categories
A Pareto Chart is a Histogram
Pareto Charts are used to apply the 80/20 rule of
Joseph Juran which states that 80% of the problems
are the result of 20% of the problems.
A Pareto Chart can be used to identify that 20%
route causes of problem.
▪ Statistical tool showing a
trend in a series of values.
▪ Demonstrating correlations
between values and showing
trends for value changes.
Way of representing a
Procedure using simple
symbols and arrows
A Flow chart lets a process or procedure be
understood easily it also demonstrate the
relationships between the elements.
▪ Run Charts are representing change
in measurement over a sequence or time
▪ Determining Cyclic Events and there
The essentials of this tool set for full support for
complex decision making, identifying key
issues and causes of persistent problems.
It will show the ways to involve teams for
continuous improvements, performance
analysis and problem solving.
Management and PlanningTools
1. Activity network diagram
2. Affinity Diagram
3. Interrelationship diagram
4. Prioritization matrix
5. Process decision Program chart
7. Matrix Diagram
Renewal of Policies & Procedures
Activation of Committees
Improvement projects by all departments
Implementation of CBAHI standards
Reconstruction of Strategic Plans
Provision of guidance & supervision for
Coordination & support to all departments
for all required works