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Introduction to Basic Project Management

Introduction to Basic Project Management

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  • 1. Basic Project Management Introduction and Overview of Project Management Prepared by: Anthony Bowen, CTC, MPA,MPM,PME,CIPM Course: CP785/MW22 --Session1 3/30/2010 1
  • 2. Project Management Statistics The U.S. spends $2.3 trillion on projects every year, an amount equal to one‐quarter of the nation's gross domestic product. The world as a whole spends nearly $10 trillion of its $40.7 trillion gross product on projects of all kinds. More than sixteen million people regard project management as their profession.¹ Source PMI 2
  • 3. Project Management Job Market  The average compensation for project management practitioners for U.S. practitioners is $101,505 - PMI Project Management Salary Survey-Fourth Edition  In fact, there is a growing shortage of project talent as organizations have begun to recognize that project managers can improve business performance in any industry. According to a study published in October 2008 by the Anderson Economic Group, an average of 1.2 million project management positions will need to be filled each year through 2016. (Source PMI) 3
  • 4. Why Project Management ?  Project Management is an in-demand skill set and one of the fastest growing professional disciplines in North America. Project Management breaks down the chaos of an overwhelming workload into manageable elements - scope, time, cost, quality, human resources, communication, risk, procurement, and integration of projects. 4
  • 5. Project Management Certification  PMI provides certification as a Project Management Professional (PMP)  A PMP has documented sufficient project experience (3 years), agreed to follow a code of ethics, and passed the PMP exam ◦ (200 questions in 4 hours)  More on certification found in Appendix C Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 3-5 Prentice Hall
  • 6. Other PM organizations  Although PMI is the largest professional project management society it is not alone. There are several others that are growing as well such as: • the International Project Management Association (IPMA) and • the Association of Project Management’s (APM) PRojects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2) methodology • The American Academy of Project Management (AAPM) *AAPM -MPM Master Project Manager ™ Designation is the only Project Management Credential and certification that requires accredited college degree education. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 3-6 Prentice Hall
  • 7. Project Management Institute (PMI) Certification  Project Management Institute - www.pmi.org ◦ CAPM – Certified Associate in Project Management  High School Diploma & 23 Hours of PM Education (everyone qualifies) ◦ PMP – Project Management Professional  Education: High School Diploma & 5 years Project Management Experience + 35 hours Project Management Education Certificate OR  Bachelor’s Degree / global equivalent & 3 Years Project management Experience + 35 hours Project Management Education (QC) 7
  • 8. What do CAPM /PMP candidates do?  CAPM Candidates are responsible for individual project tasks in their area of expertise (e.g., finance, marketing, legal, customer care, market research, fulfillment, processing). The responsibility does not need to be industry specific, but must be relevant across many functional areas and industries.  PMP - Candidates are responsible for all aspects of individual projects for the life of the project. 8
  • 9. American Academy of Project Management (AAPM)  Certifications with American Academy of Project Management (AAPM) ◦ www.aapm.info (MPM,CIPM,PME) ◦ MPM - Master Project Manager - The MPM ™ is the world's premier graduate masters certification for project managers. This credential is for college educated professionals who manage teams, departments, and employees. This designation is a project management certification designed for senior project managers and project directors. This is the Graduate Gold Standard of Project Management. PME - Project Management E-Business - International Charter Certification involves many specialized skills including: management, leadership, international law, marketing/SEO, ecommerce and IT concepts. CIPM - Certified International Project Manager - The Original International Charter Designation is designed for project managers and project leaders. This is the International Project Managers Credential and requires multi- national knowledge, training and skill sets (source) http://www.certifiedprojectmanager.org 9
  • 10. Requirements for AAPM  If you have 3 years of Project Management Experience and PM Training, you may apply for MPM™ Master Project Manager, CIPM ™ Certified International Project Manager ™ or PME ™ Project Manager E-Business ™ Board Certification. If you have a masters degree or qualified Project Management training or experience, you can apply for an exam executive waiver  A 4 year Degree and 3 years PM Experience  A Masters Degree and 1 year PM Experience ◦ & Graduate from an AAPM Approved Certificate Program 10
  • 11. Queens Program Approved by AAPM  Oct. 2009 - AApM Alliance - City University of New York Queens College - This week, the AAPM © USA Board has formerly established new East and West Coast Chapters in New York and California. At the Queens College and City College New York City, the University of California in Silicon Valley, and the Thomas Jefferson School of Law Graduate Program in San Diego. Moreover, the West Indies and Singapore Societies are also licensed. With new representative offices in India, China, Cairo, New York, Silicon Valley and Latin America, AAPM is the first to provide graduate e-Business and Project Management Certification Standards in the world with over 10 years of Global Presence online. 11
  • 12. Queens College a PMI approved program for Project Management  Queens College is an approved provider program for Project Management Certification by PMI. https://www.pmi.org/CCRS/ProviderDetails.aspx 12
  • 13. Project Management Knowledge Continues to Grow and Mature  The PMBOK Guide – 2000 Edition is an ANSI standard  Released end of `04 - PMBOK 3rd Edition  Just released A Guide to the PMBOK 4th edition  PMI’s certification department earned ISO 9000 certification  Hundreds of new books, articles, and presentations related to project management have been written in recent years Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 3-13 Prentice Hall
  • 14. Growth in PMPs Certifications, 1993 – 2008 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, 3- Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 14
  • 15. The PMBOK  The PMI Project Management Body of Knowledge framework used for the text is structured around: • five process groups which are made up of • component processes consisting of tools, techniques, and outcomes organized within • nine knowledge areas Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 3-15 Prentice Hall
  • 16. What is a Project ?  A PROJECT is a complex series of non-routine tasks directed to meet a specific one-time goal. The PROJECT MANAGER works to balance project scope, the time available to carry out the project, and the budget available for the project.  A Temporary Endeavor Undertaken to Deliver a unique Product or Service. Such as: ◦ Booking Engine ◦ Website ◦ Database System ◦ Write a Book ◦ Build a bridge 16
  • 17. Major Project Management Achievements  Great pyramids of Egypt  Pacific Railroad  Hoover Dam  Manhattan Project  Space program 1- © 2008 Prentice Hall 17
  • 18. Additional Definitions  A project is a unique venture with a beginning and an end, conducted by people to meet established goals within parameters of cost, schedule and quality. Buchanan & Boddy 92  Projects are goal-oriented, involve the coordinated undertaking of interrelated activities, are of finite duration, and are all, to a degree unique. Frame 95 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-18 Prentice Hall
  • 19. What Is a Project? Key characteristics  Key Characteristics: ◦ Temporary ◦ Unique ◦ Progressive Elaboration ◦ Single unique purpose Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-19 Prentice Hall
  • 20. Projects Are Progressively Elaborated  Refers to the idea that execution of the project occurs in steps (phases) or small increments, adding features and definition until the final objective is achieved  Concept applies to the scope, time, and cost of the project Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-20 Prentice Hall
  • 21. What Is a Project, continued  Secondary Characteristics: ◦ Each project must have a primary sponsor or champion ◦ Projects usually cut across organizational lines requiring resources from several different sources ◦ They must do something, deliver something of value Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-21 Prentice Hall
  • 22. Attributes of a Project  •Unique Purpose  •Temporary  •Require Resources From Various Areas  •Has a Primary Sponsor and/or Customer  •Involves Uncertainty  Never been done before  Must contain a well-defined purpose  Because each project is unique, creates uncertainty and risk 22
  • 23. Introduction  Examples of projects ◦ Split the atom ◦ Chunnel between England and France ◦ Introduce Windows Vista ◦ Disneyland’s Expedition Everest ―Projects, rather than repetitive tasks, are now the basis for most value-added in business‖ -Tom Peters Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-23 Prentice Hall
  • 24. Elements of Projects  Complex, one-time processes  Limited by budget, schedule, and resources  Developed to resolve a clear goal or set of goals  Customer-focused Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-24 Prentice Hall
  • 25. General Project Characteristics (1/2)  Ad-hoc endeavors with a clear life cycle  Building blocks in the design and execution of organizational strategies  Responsible for the newest and most improved products, services, and organizational processes  Provide a philosophy and strategy for the management of change Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-25 Prentice Hall
  • 26. General Project Characteristics (2/2)  Entail crossing functional and organization boundaries  Traditional management functions of planning, organizing, motivating, directing, and controlling apply  Principal outcomes are the satisfaction of customer requirements within technical, cost, and schedule constraints  Terminated upon successful completion Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-26 Prentice Hall
  • 27. Features of Project & Process Novel: has not been done before, not in exactly the same way. May be managed across divisions or directorates. Some key risks involved are not well understood. Value to the organization is by delivering the project on time and on budget. • PROJECT Projects, in their purest form, create entirely new processes. Creating a new process necessarily involves doing new things. Repeated continually: has been done before, will be done again. Managed by a single division or department. Most risks involved are well understood. Value to the organization is created by continuous improvement of the process. • PROCESS Procedures that get repeated frequently are usually refined through experience to the point where they are unlikely to fail catastrophically. 27
  • 28. Process & Project Management (Table 1.1) Process Project 1. Repeat process or product 1. New process or product 2. Several objectives 2. One objective 3. Ongoing 3. One shot – limited life 4. People are homogeneous 4. More heterogeneous 5. Systems in place to integrate 5. Systems must be created to efforts integrate efforts 6. Performance, cost, & time known 6. Performance, cost & time less certain 7. Part of the line organization 7. Outside of line organization 8. Bastions of established practice 8. Violates established practice 9. Supports status quo 9. Upsets status quo Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1- Prentice Hall 28
  • 29. Project Success Rates  Software & hardware projects fail at a 65% rate  Over half of all IT projects become runaways  Up to 75% of all software projects are cancelled  Only 2.5% of global businesses achieve 100% project success  Average success of business-critical application development projects is 35%. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-29 Prentice Hall
  • 30. Why are Projects Important? 1. Shortened product life cycles 2. Narrow product launch windows 3. Increasingly complex and technical products 4. Emergence of global markets 5. Economic period marked by low inflation Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-30 Prentice Hall
  • 31. Why Project fail?  One of the main reasons why projects fail is that they were not identified as being projects and so were not managed as projects. Understanding what projects are and knowing their features and how they differ from processes can help to reduce the amount of waste and risk in your organization. 31
  • 32. Top Five Causes of Project Failure (OASIG Study) 1. Lack of attention to human and organizational factors 2. Poor project management 3. Poor articulation of user requirements 4. Inadequate attention to business needs and goals 5. Failure to involve users appropriately 1- © 2008 Prentice Hall 32
  • 33. 2004 Study by Wallace & Keil 1. Lack of executive support 2. Lack of user involvement 3. Inexperienced project manager 4. Inexperienced team members 5. Unclear business objectives 6. Unreliable estimates 7. Lack of effective project management methodology 8. New software infrastructure 9. Unstable organizational environment 10. Unreliable outside suppliers 1- © 2008 Prentice Hall 33
  • 34. What is Project Management ?  Project management is "The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet project requirements"²  Project Management involves a series of activities - and a logical path to success.  Source - ²PMI 34
  • 35. What is Project Management?  The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet project requirements.  Involves five process groups: 1- © 2008 Prentice Hall 35
  • 36. Project Management Essentials  The Application Of: ◦ Knowledge ◦ Skills ◦ Methodology ◦ Tools ◦ Techniques ◦ Templates 36
  • 37. PMBOK Knowledge Areas 1- © 2008 Prentice Hall 37
  • 38. Project Management Methodology  Initiate – potential projects are identified and evaluated in terms of importance to the organization  Plan – scope, time, cost and risk management planning takes place  Execute – project plan is followed  Control – project performance is measured against the project plan  Close – final paper work completed and sign off by all stakeholders 1- © 2008 Prentice Hall 38
  • 39. The Approach to Learning Project Management  Process Focus  Team Focus  Technology Focus  PM Software  Group Support Technologies  Knowledge Management and Organizational Memory Systems  Global Focus  PM Professional Focus 1- © 2008 Prentice Hall 39
  • 40. Importance of Project Management  Due to the size, complexity, and number of information technology (IT) projects, organizations face ever-increasing challenges  Global U.S. government spending topped $150 billion in 2007  Forrester Research estimates that global IT spending—purchases of computers, software, and services by companies and governments—will drop by 3 percent in 2009, to $1.66 trillion Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-40 Prentice Hall
  • 41. Importance of Project Management  Forrester Research estimates that about 20 percent of current IT budgets are going into project development  Gartner ―In a worst case scenario, our research indicates an IT spending increase of 2.3 percent in 2009, down from our earlier projection of 5.8 percent. Developed economies, especially the United States and western Europe, will be the worst affected, but emerging regions will not be immune. Europe will experience negative growth in 2009; the United States and Japan will be flat.‖ Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-41 Prentice Hall
  • 42. IT Projects Are Different  Traditionally high turnover rates of IT workers  Level of uniqueness and complexity of each project due to the rapid changes in technology  Software is hard to visualize by the developer let alone the customer  Difficulty in getting accurate customer requirements  Rate of change in requirements  Difficulty in testing all the possible states of software  Constant training needed to keep team members current with the technology Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-42 Prentice Hall
  • 43. IT Projects Are Different Engineering/ Information Category Construction Technology Requirement Changes Slow, incremental Rapid, unplanned Source of Changes Known, predictable Many times not known Requirements Explicit plan Often ambiguous Uniqueness Higher commonality Low commonality Resources Stable High turnover rates Implementation Structured, controlled Often chaotic Testing Defined, measurable Difficult test all options Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-43 Prentice Hall
  • 44. Advantages of Using Formal Project Management Practices  Improvement in customer satisfaction  Better cost performance, higher return on investment  Better schedule performance, better allocation of time commitments and better utilization of resources, higher productivity  Increased quality reducing re-work  Increase in delivering required features  Will make everyone happier (stakeholders, team members, management…) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-44 Prentice Hall
  • 45. History of Project Management  Modern project management began with the Manhattan Project, which the U.S. military led to develop the atomic bomb  In 1917 Henry Gantt developed the Gantt chart as a tool for scheduling work in job shops  In 1958, the Navy developed PERT charts  In the 1970s, the military began using project management software, as did the construction industry  By the 1990s, virtually every industry was using some form of project management Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-45 Prentice Hall
  • 46. Project Management Simplified  Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (i.e. human, financial & material) in such a way that a project is completed within defined scope, quality, time and cost constraints. ◦ The first challenge of project management is to make sure that a project is delivered within defined constraints. ◦ The second, more ambitious, challenge is the optimized allocation and integration of inputs needed to meet pre-defined objectives. 46
  • 47. PM Tools and Techniques   Include:  •Project Charter  •Scope Statement  •The Work Plan  •Gantt Charts  •Network Diagrams  •Critical Path Analysis  •Cost Estimates  •Earned Value Management 47
  • 48. Various Project Management Tools/Techniques  Gantt Chart ◦ Tool that can be used to plan and track project activities  Critical Path Method (CPM) ◦ A method used for determining the sequence of task activities that directly affect the completion of a project  Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) ◦ A technique that uses optimistic, pessimistic, and realistic time to calculate the expected time for a particular task  Microsoft Project ◦ Most widely used project management software ◦ http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/project/default.aspx  Application Service Provider (ASP) software ◦ Web hosted project management software  Industry-Specific software ◦ Software which addresses a specific industry or environment 1- © 2008 Prentice Hall 48
  • 49. Project Management Foundation  Include: ◦ Core Knowledge Areas ◦ Core Processes ◦ Facilitating Processes ◦ Life Cycle Processes 49
  • 50. Project Manager  The project manager is focused on making their project succeed; delivering the project is all, and if the project does not deliver the project then they have failed. 50
  • 51. Project Manager Skills Soft skills: Technical Skills: ◦ Leadership  Project Management ◦ Team building software ◦ Negotiation  Level of ◦ Conflict management understanding of the ◦ Organization for self and others technology being ◦ Communication both used in the project oral and written to both (software, hardware, technical and non- network, etc.) technical audiences  Basic knowledge of ◦ Change management the business ◦ Active listening  Cost estimating and budgeting Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-51 Prentice Hall
  • 52. Six Basic Functions of Successful PM’s 1. manage project scope – make sure the team works on what is needed for the project and nothing else 2. manage human resources – the team must work together, this doesn’t just happen it takes a directed effort 3. manage communications – this occurs at many levels, teammates, customers, managers, vendors, and others 4. manage schedule – must keep people on schedule delivering work on time 5. manage quality – need to make sure that all work performed meets with customer expected levels of quality 6. manage costs – must keep an eye on the budget to make sure all the work can be done and not exceed the allocated budget Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-52 Prentice Hall
  • 53. A Project Manager Manages Projects by:  Setting clear and achievable objectives  Identifying requirements  Adapting the project to the various concerns of the stakeholders  Balancing the demands of the triple constraint Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-53 Prentice Hall
  • 54. The Triple Constraint  Every Project is Constrained in Different Ways ◦ Scope Goals:  What is the Project Trying to Accomplish? ◦ Time Goals:  How Long Should it Take to Complete? ◦ Cost Goals:  What Should it Cost?  It is the Project Manager's Duty to Balance Th ese Three Often Competing Goals 54
  • 55. Project Budget, Schedule, & Scope Budget • Budget Cost / •People Resources •Equipment •Material Triple Scope Mgmt. Goals & Objectives The work required to Constraint complete them. • The Timing of Sequence of Tasks •Task Schedule •Task Dependencies •Duration •Constraints 55
  • 56. The Triple Constraint (figure 1-4) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-56 Prentice Hall
  • 57. Triple Constraint  Every project is constrained by a list of customer-requested requirements (scope), the amount of time available to produce the system in support of the requirements (time), and the limit of money available (cost)  Every project is constrained differently, according to the goals of the system owner (sponsor) and the project team Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-57 Prentice Hall
  • 58. Triple Constraint Trade-offs  Reducing time allowed will increase cost (especially if overtime is required) and may reduce the scope (functions and features) of the system  Reducing costs (cutting the budget) will increase time (delay schedule) and may reduce the scope (functions and features) of the system  Increasing scope (adding features) will certainly increase time and/or cost  Reducing scope may reduce time and cost (and it may also negatively affect quality) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-58 Prentice Hall
  • 59. Project Stakeholders  Stakeholders Are the People Involved in or Aff ected By Project Activities  Stakeholders Include ◦ The Project Sponsor and Project Team ◦ Support Staff ◦ Customers ◦ Users ◦ Suppliers ◦ Opponents to the Project 59
  • 60. Interacting Process Groups  Figure 3-3 demonstrates how process groups exist within each phase of an iterative project  The initiating process group is the process that begins the project as well as each phase. Each phase consists of all five process groups interacting over time  Each phase as well as the entire project ends with the closing process. As each phase ends, the closing process reviews what was accomplished in the previous phase and what needs to be done or redone in the next phase Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 3-60 Prentice Hall
  • 61. Project Life Cycle 61
  • 62. Project Life Cycles Man Hours Conceptualization Planning Execution Termination Fig 1.3 Project Life Cycle Stages Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-62 Prentice Hall
  • 63. Project Life Cycles  Conceptualization - the development of the initial goal and technical specifications.  Planning – all detailed specifications, schedules, schematics, and plans are developed  Execution – the actual ―work‖ of the project is performed  Termination – project is transferred to the customer, resources reassigned, project is closed out. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-63 Prentice Hall
  • 64. Process Groups  Initiating processes – authorizing the beginning or ending of a project or phase  Planning processes – ensuring that the objectives of the project are achieved in the most appropriate way  Executing processes – coordinating all resources (people and material) during the implementation of the project plan  Controlling processes – monitoring of project variances from what was planned to actual progress  Closing processes – formal acceptance of the project or a phase and updating of the project information base with lessons learned Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 3-64 Prentice Hall
  • 65. Process Groups and Knowledge Areas Figure 3-1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, 3- Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 65
  • 66. Process Groups Overlap in Time Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 3-66 Prentice Hall
  • 67. Process Groups Interacting in a Phase Figure 3-3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, 3- Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 67
  • 68. Process Groups  Process groups supply a roadmap to follow, and the knowledge areas describe the methods (for example, car, plane, bus) of how to get to our destination, which is project success Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 3-68 Prentice Hall
  • 69. Project Life Cycles and Their Effects Client Interest Project Stake Resources Creativity Uncertainty Conceptualization lanning P Execution Termination Fig 1.4© 2010 Pearson Copyright Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-69 Prentice Hall
  • 70. Six Criteria for IT Project Success  System quality  Information quality  Use  User satisfaction  Individual Impact  Organizational impact Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 1-70 Prentice Hall
  • 71. PLC Initiation Phase  Initiation - Define the Project ◦ The Initiating stage of project management includes examining the strategic fit for a proposed project. Before beginning a new project, an organization must determine that the project fits in with its strategic goals. Understanding the organization’s goals can help executives identify certain proposed projects focusing on mission- critical activities as high-priority, and other projects peripheral to organization goals as lower priority. During the Initiating stage, an executive sponsor should be identified. A high-level evaluation of the project’s business case should be developed, along with project limitations and technical and financial requirements. A project manager should be identified and a placeholder project plan set up in Microsoft Office Project 2003, Microsoft Project 2002, or Microsoft Project 2000.  Source: MS Project Quick Reference Guide 71
  • 72. Project Initiation  Link a Project to An Underlying Business Need  Analyze and Understand the Stakeholders  Build the Business Case  Identify Constraints  Document Assumptions  Develop a Preliminary Scope Statement 72
  • 73. Project Initiation Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, 3- Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 73
  • 74. PLC – Planning Phase  Planning – Create the Plan & Assign Resources ◦ The Planning stage devises a workable scheme to accomplish the project’s intended goals and outcomes. In the Planning stage, you identify the project’s milestones, deliverables, and tasks. This plan can be your work breakdown structure (WBS). You develop and refine the schedule, and identify the resources needed to implement the project.  Source: MS Project Quick Reference Guide 74
  • 75. Project Planning Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, 3- Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 75
  • 76. Project Planning  The Activities:  •Develop a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)  •Estimate Resource Requirements ◦ Personnel ◦ Time Line ◦ Budget  •Determine the Milestones  •Develop the Work‐plan 76
  • 77. Structured Project Management  Identify Risk ◦ Assess ◦ Quantify ◦ Manage  Mitigation Strategies  Contingency Planning  Formal Change Control Processes  Managing Organizational Change  Communications  Expectations 77
  • 78. PLC – Execution Phase  Execution - Update and keep track  Controlling – Communicate & Report ◦ The Executing/Controlling stage coordinates people and other resources to carry out the plan as defined in the project plan. The deliverables in this stage focus on managing change, entering schedule updates, tracking progress, and communicating project information. Each team member performs defined tasks within the project scope, ensuring their contribution to the project’s success.  Source: MS Project Quick Reference Guide 78
  • 79. Project Execution Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, 3- Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 79
  • 80. Project Execution  The Interrelationships ◦ Planning ◦ Execution ◦ Control  The Constraints ◦ Scope ◦ Schedule ◦ Cost 80
  • 81. Project Control  Monitoring and Control ◦ The Work ◦ The Time ◦ The Budget ◦ The Deliverables ◦ The Communications ◦ The Quality ◦ The Completion 81
  • 82. Project Monitoring & Control Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, 3- Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 82
  • 83. PLC – Closing Phase  Closing – close out the project ◦ The Closing stage includes final details for completing a project. Resolve any final project details, and obtain customer acceptance of final deliverables. Conduct a Lessons Learned session, recording information about areas for improvement and best practices. Make any final updates to the project plan. Finally, archive the project plan according to your organization’s project data archival guidelines.  Source: MS Project Quick Reference Guide 83
  • 84. Managing Expectations  Identify Stakeholder Requirements ◦ Deliverables ◦ On‐going Communications  Define Roles and Responsibilities  Manage Expectations 84
  • 85. Project Closure  Gain Acceptance for Deliverables  Implement the Transition Plan  Assess the Lessons Learned  Archive Information  Close out the Team  Conclude the Project 85
  • 86. Project Closeout Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, 3- Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 86
  • 87. Project Management Recap!  Projects are the means to bring about change faster than it would happen otherwise; projects accelerate change to beyond the rate at which the organization naturally evolves and changes.  Projects have a definite start and end point. (This contrasts with processes, which continue in a cycle.) Once a project reaches its objective, it finishes.  Projects have high risk. This is an outcome of accelerated change.  Projects are about doing something new. Consequently, projects have to develop new approaches and means of doing things.  Projects come in all sizes and every variety of difficulty. Some can be planned, managed and executed all by the same person working part time. Others require tens of thousands of people working on many sites doing many different things.  All of them share some common features and will benefit from some parts of the body of knowledge that has built up around project management in general, but which parts of the body of knowledge should be applied will vary according to the specifics of the project. 87
  • 88. Advantages of Project Management  Better Control of Resources  Improved Customer Relations  Shorter Development Times  Lower Costs  Higher Quality and Increased Reliability  Higher Profit Margins  Improved Productivity  Better Internal Coordination  Higher Worker Morale 88
  • 89. Next Session: Introduction  The nine knowledge areas of project management are:  Project Integration Management.  Project Scope Management.  Project Time Management.  Project Cost Management.  Project Quality Management.  Project Human Resource Management.  Project Communication Management.  Project Risk Management.  Project Procurement Management. Source : PMI Handbook 89
  • 90. Knowledge Areas  The knowledge areas represent the body of knowledge that a project manager must have in order to consistently deliver successful projects that meet a customer’s expectations in terms of scope, time, cost, and quality of the project deliverables Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 3-90 Prentice Hall
  • 91. PMBOK Knowledge Areas  Integration Management  Scope Management  Time Management  Cost Management  Quality Management  Human Resources Management  Communications Management  Risk Management  Procurement Management Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as 3-91 Prentice Hall
  • 92. PM Core Knowledge Areas  Core Knowledge Areas: Objectives ◦ Scope ◦ Time ◦ Cost ◦ Quality  Facilitating Knowledge Areas: Achievement ◦ Human Resources ◦ Communication ◦ Risk ◦ Procurement ◦ Project Integration Management 92
  • 93. The PM Process Machine Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, 3- Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 93