Industrialization - Continent<br />
Continental Europe<br />Industrialization slower<br />1750- all countries similar<br />18c – all experienced<br />Agricult...
European Continent<br />By 1800 Britain pulled ahead – <br />After 1820s, Railroads spurred industrialization and state po...
Continental Europe<br />France:  after 1815, industrialized at steady pace but no revolutionary burst<br />
Disadvantages on Continent<br />French Revolution, Napoleonic wars<br />Competition with British Goods<br />Larger investm...
Advantages on Continent<br />Putting-out system in place, merchants in cities<br />British technology borrowed or pirated<...
Transfer of technology<br />Englishmen pirated technology – e.g. Cockerill started machine works in Belgium<br />Technical...
Europe<br />Serfdom still survived in places (esp. Russia)<br />limited labor mobility <br />tied up capital<br />1830s-18...
1850: Continent still ca. 20 years behind Britain<br />
Urbanization and the Working Class<br />Factory workers remained minority despite growth<br />1840s% of Factory Workers<br...
Urban workers<br />Urban population surged even more in 19c<br />Manchester, Leeds grew 40% in 1820s<br />Bf. 1833 in Engl...
Manchester statistics<br />“From this filthy sewer pure gold flows” –Alexis de Tocqueville, 1830<br />Life expectancy 1840...
Legislation<br />Factory Act 1833 – regulated child labor 9-13 years (9 hrs) and 13-18 years (12 h)<br />1842 Mines Act pr...
Cities<br />Overcrowding as cities ballooned first in England, then on the continent<br />Sanitation problems, water suppl...
Cities<br />Promiscuity, illegitimacy, crime (Europe 1830s-40s ½ babies illegitimate)<br />
Reforms<br />Robert Owen<br />Upper and middle-class women e.g. Great Britain bible societies<br />Continent – Catholic re...
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Industrialization continent

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Some points about industrialization on the Continent, and about the working class and cities. Please refer to textbook and your class notes for more complete information

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Industrialization continent

  1. 1. Industrialization - Continent<br />
  2. 2. Continental Europe<br />Industrialization slower<br />1750- all countries similar<br />18c – all experienced<br />Agricultural improvements<br />Population increases<br />Expanding foreign trade<br />Growing cottage industries (putting out)<br />
  3. 3. European Continent<br />By 1800 Britain pulled ahead – <br />After 1820s, Railroads spurred industrialization and state power <br />required govt. and private funds<br />Germany 1840s- 1/3 of all investment in RRs<br />1831 – Belgium independent, begins to industrialize<br />
  4. 4. Continental Europe<br />France: after 1815, industrialized at steady pace but no revolutionary burst<br />
  5. 5. Disadvantages on Continent<br />French Revolution, Napoleonic wars<br />Competition with British Goods<br />Larger investments required as scale of factories grew<br />British led in technology and skillls<br />
  6. 6. Advantages on Continent<br />Putting-out system in place, merchants in cities<br />British technology borrowed or pirated<br />Independent governments could support industrial growth<br />
  7. 7. Transfer of technology<br />Englishmen pirated technology – e.g. Cockerill started machine works in Belgium<br />Technical schools set up<br />Belgium first – 1830-1844, steam engines in Belgium quadrupled and were exported<br />
  8. 8. Europe<br />Serfdom still survived in places (esp. Russia)<br />limited labor mobility <br />tied up capital<br />1830s-1840s – many cities grew rapidly, on continent most came from the country<br />
  9. 9. 1850: Continent still ca. 20 years behind Britain<br />
  10. 10. Urbanization and the Working Class<br />Factory workers remained minority despite growth<br />1840s% of Factory Workers<br />England – 5%<br />France 3%<br />Prussia 2% (1840s- putting out)<br />Work often seasonal, combined with agricultural work.<br />
  11. 11. Urban workers<br />Urban population surged even more in 19c<br />Manchester, Leeds grew 40% in 1820s<br />Bf. 1833 in England, families worked together (Factory Act)<br />Workers became a new socioeconomic class with distinctive culture and a sense of common interests<br />Not uncontested e.g. Luddites, 1811-1812<br />Others began organizing, unions would follow<br />Peterloo, 1819 – 60,000 met in St. Peter’s fields, Manchester 11 killed, hundreds injured- <br />
  12. 12. Manchester statistics<br />“From this filthy sewer pure gold flows” –Alexis de Tocqueville, 1830<br />Life expectancy 1840: England – 40 yearsManchester – 17 years<br />
  13. 13. Legislation<br />Factory Act 1833 – regulated child labor 9-13 years (9 hrs) and 13-18 years (12 h)<br />1842 Mines Act prohibited employment of women and young boys underground<br />Many European countries followed<br />Enforcement lax<br />
  14. 14. Cities<br />Overcrowding as cities ballooned first in England, then on the continent<br />Sanitation problems, water supply issues<br />Horrible pollution – soot<br />Epidemic disease eg cholera 1830-1832, 1847-1851 <br />
  15. 15. Cities<br />Promiscuity, illegitimacy, crime (Europe 1830s-40s ½ babies illegitimate)<br />
  16. 16. Reforms<br />Robert Owen<br />Upper and middle-class women e.g. Great Britain bible societies<br />Continent – Catholic religious orders ran schools, hospitals, foundling homes, asylums<br />Education laws began to be passed on Britain and continent, beginning 1830s<br />Temperance movements<br />

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