Updated Fall 2011 October 31, 2007 Chapter 24, Baroque Art
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Baroque style - ca. 1600-1750 Baroque Architecture in Italy Movement Drama Ornament Complexity
Europe in the 17 th Century Kings were consolidating the various regions into what would become the modern Nation-States such as France, Germany, etc. Baroque roughly 1600-1750 in Europe A short period with many styles International, with strong regional characteristics Dynamic, theatrical, and combines media in elaborate ways Despite being very much a Counter-Reformation art, there is much secular, aristocratic patrionage: it is an art of the powerful, especially in the south, but less so in the North.
GIACOMO DELLA PORTA, facade of Il Gesù, Rome, Italy, ca. 1575 – 1584 -Most influential building of the second half of the 16th century -Mother church of the Jesuit Order. Jesuits a missionary order that answered directly to the pope, not other secular rulers, and defended the Church as part of the Counter Reformation. -Jesuits , founded 1540 by St. Ignatius Loyola, sent their members all over the world, as missionaries and educators -Jesuits went especially to Asia, Africa and the Americas, so the influence of this church traveled beyond Europe- you can find churches like this in places like Bolivia and Brazil. -Giacomo da Vignola designed the plan, and Giacomo Della Porta, this façade -it is Late Renaissance but is considered on of the forerunners of the Baroque
Figure 24-1 CARLO MADERNO, Santa Susanna, Rome, Italy, 1597–1603. Example of the influence of Della Porta ’s Il Gesu - Il Gesu in inset
CARLO MADERNO, facade of Saint Peter ’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1606–1612 -Impetus for the Baroque began with elements derived from Renaissance architects but employed in new ways that High Renaissance artists like Michelangelo would never have done. -To finish St. Peters, he was given the impossible task of adding a nave to Michelanelo ’s (and Bramante’s) central-plan church, and make a façade -Never completed as he intended, He had planned to use M ’s columns in façade and two towers over the outer bays, to balance the façade and dome. the façade seems too distant from the Dome for a harmonious proportion.
CARLO MADERNO, plan of Saint Peter ’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, with adjoining piazza designed by GIANLORENZO BERNINI. 1657 Piazza by Bernini. Oval ’s length is punctuated by fountains on sides, obelisk at center. Two double ranks of Tuscan Doric columns curve around to embrace the faithful Passages angle back to the façade, opening to the visitor as she approaches
Figure 24-4 Aerial view of Saint Peter ’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1506–1666.
*GIANLORENZO BERNINI, baldacchino, Saint Peter ’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1624–1633. Gilded bronze, approx. 100’ The shape of the spiraling columns is said to have come from Solomon ’s temple and was very influential, especially in Latin America were they continued to be used in Church architecture long after the style was no longer current in the European centers.
*GIANLORENZO BERNINI, David, 1623. Marble, approx. 5 ’ 7” high Demonstrates the evolution from Renaissance Sculpture to Baroque -Shows David DURING battle with Goliath. -Face worked up with effort and tension; Body a coiled spring about to unwind and fling the stone with the slingshot. -Energy expands OUTWARD into the viewer ’s space
Figure 24-8 GIANLORENZO BERNINI, plan of the Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy, 1645–1652. -Ecstasy of St. Therese sculpture would be at top, in niche
*FRANCESCO BORROMINI, facade of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, Italy, 1665–1676. [Bernini ’s rival, Borromini known for use of elliptical and contrasting forms] San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, built for monastery, Demonstrates the main features of Baroque architecture: - -tripartite division -emphasis on the central axis -undulating facades using concave and convex surfaces -high and low relief which cast shadows on the building ’ s surfaces
*FRANCESCO BORROMINI, plan of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, Italy, 1638–1641 Its revolutionary plan is -complicated -extended oval between entry and altar -undulating walls result in two deep recesses at the ends, and two shallow recesses along the side, each of which forms the chapel. (compare to NAVE and Central-plan churches)
Ch24-I Baroque italian-architecture
Baroque I Chapter 24 Architecture in Italy 1600-1700
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<ul><li>Baroque style - ca. 1600-1750 </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque Architecture in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Drama </li></ul><ul><li>Ornament </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul>