November 5, 2007 Baroque, continued STILL NEEDS WORK AND NEEDS TO BE CHECKED TO SEE IF ALL SLIDES I WANT ARE IN [10-31-07]
Europe in the 17 th Century Kings were consolidating the various regions into what would become the modern Nation-States such as France, Germany, etc. Baroque roughly 1600-1750 in Europe A short period with many styles International, with strong regional characteristics Dynamic, theatrical, and combines media in elaborate ways Despite being very much a Counter-Reformation art, there is much secular, aristocratic patrionage: it is an art of the powerful, especially in the south, but less so in the North.
SPAIN AND FLANDERS In the 16c Spain had been an international wealthy colonial power Habsburg dynasty encompassed portugal, parts of Italy, the Netherlands, and extensive areas of the Americas- US southwest, Caribbean, Mexico, Central America, Much of South America and lots of silver flowed -BUT by the beginning of the 17c (1600s) the Habsburg empire was struggling All that empire cost money, balance of payments not good as silver flowed right thru Spain ’s hands to foreign creditors and manufacturers, and deeply in debt from the 30 Years War (ended 1648) (under Philip III and his son Philip IV) -By 1660s Spain was struggling to hang onto its former glory
24-25 Figure 24-28 JOSÉ DE RIBERA, Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew, ca. 1639. Oil on canvas, approx. 7 ’ 8” x 7’ 8”. Museo del Prado, Madrid. -Spain an avid defender of the Catholic Church as well as the first great colonial power. Wealthy on American Silver. _Spanish at contributed to the representation of Catholic dogma -Missionary and Martyrdom themes important. -Spain was a center of Baroque religious art intended to stir the emotions of the viewer, to encourage greater devotion and piety. These great dramas of sacrifice on behalf of the faith resonated in the Spanish world where there were still opportunities to die converting the Native Americans in Mexico, what is now the American Southwest, and South America. People really felt it was possible to become a saint and a lot of people, especially monks and priests and nuns, aspired to it -All spaniards were about reputation, pride, courage, devotion. -RIBERA worked in Naples, part of Sp kingdoms, and settled there. -influenced by Caravaggio Naturalism and drama -St. Bartholemew about to be skinned alive (flayed) -Not idealized. Gore intended to inspire religious feeling. Heroic sanctity
Figure 24-29 FRANCISCO DE ZURBARÁN, Saint Serapion, 1628. Oil on canvas, 3 ’ 11 1/2” x 3’ 4 3/4”. Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford (The Ella Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection Fund). Sometimes they were not so gory or graphic; this is meditative -For a chapel of the Mercedarian order. -This saint had been in crusade of 1196 and was martyred for preaching gospel to Muslims (tied to tree, tortured, decapitatied) Self-sacrifice -Dark background and close-up view w/ pathetic phase emphasized drama of image -inscription says who saint is. -Devotional image INTENDED TO BE USED FOR PRAYER
Figure 24-30 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Water Carrier of Seville, ca. 1619. Oil on canvas, 3 ’ 5 1/2” x 2’ 7 1/2”. Wellington Museum, London. Velazquez (a Sevillian) had a huge impact on generations of artists to come, not just in Spain but also later artists like Manet, one of the early inspirations for Impressionists in France\\ -V did travel 2x to Italy, and was influenced by the Seville of his birth, but spend most of life in Royal court in Madrid -Velazquez illustrated the humble peasant as well as the aristocrat -This GENRE SCENE Gives a glimpse into Spanish society of the 17th Century -Here we get A momentary view into daily activities of humble people- the ragged water carrier and his customers, simple people in need of refreshment. Torn clothing -The jug at right a recognizable 17c style, as is the one in the center- --The controlled, even, earth-toned palette creates a statement about the humble people who lived outside the royal court -skill: droplets of water, -Darks and lights- influence of Caravaggio ’s works, , w hihc he had seen in Ital
Vel ázquez, Juan de Pareja His mulatto assisstant
Figure 24-32 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, King Philip IV of Spain (Fraga Philip), 1644. Oil on canvas, 4 ’ 3 1/8” x 3’ 3 1/8”. The Frick Collection, New York. [town of fraga, Aragon is where it was painted] -This is a more typical Royal portrait, formal and simple - In Spain the king often was not shown with many objects or in a setting because the focus was on the king himself, and the portrait was often a stand-in for the king and for royal authority in far-away realms. (The King ’s living Image) -here dressed as miliatry leader but only sword and baton of command -tour de force of fabric, silver embroidery, and no one did blacks like V
Figure 24-33 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656. Oil on canvas, approx. 10 ’ 5” x 9’. Museo del Prado, Madrid. *DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656. Oil on canvas -In contrast to the street people and common folk is the work Velazquez did for the royal court of Philip IV -painted after V ’s stay in fomre 1648=1651 -In Las Meninas Velazquez has created a dialogue within the canvas and with the viewer- a drawing in of the viewer and eliding of viewer and artwork space that is a hallmark of the baroque. Masterly complexity, still studied today -other Spanish painters mingled the influence of Flemish linear realism with the influence of Caravaggio -Velazquez takes it much further: the greatest master of Spanish Baroque painting. Seville to Madrid, court painter to Philip IV -Italian influcence on Velazquez: and traveled twice to Italy (1629 and 1650) Knew the work of Titian from Italy and the Spanish Royal collections- -A remarkable portrait in the service of the royal family. Large canvas -Velasquz ’ studio, in the Royal palace (alcazar) of Madrid, with Rubens paintings on wall above (immortal gods as source of art) , princess Margarita at center, surrounded by her ladies in waiting, dwarf, playmate and Spanish mastiff -governess and her escort are in midground -man stands on staircase outside room in background -Artist shown painting, a self-portrait. He wears a symbol of a Spanish honorary order -AMBIGUITY: Everyone looks at where the Viewer stands, but King Philip and Queen Mariana are reflected in a mirror at very back: are they sitting for their portrait? -Or is it us, the viewer being painted? The main characters look directly at the viewer, as though ready to engage in dialogue. Viewer is placed in ambiguous position Real spaces, mirror spaces, picture spaces, and is he looking into a mirror in order to paint himself? -creation of pictorial depth is amaizng. Many values lights, darks, and everything in between - almost photographic tonal gradation of extreme subtlety. UTTERLY COMPLEX -Velazquez in this painting is demonstrating his virtuosity but also his high status in the Royal Court of Spain, as the royals join him in the studio - he is like a trusted member of the Royal Family -V creates an atmosphere that is real and believable, but his image also relaxes the severity of the official court portrait
Figure 24-31 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Surrender of Breda, 1634–1635. Oil on canvas, 10 ’ 1” x 12’ 1/2”. Museo del Prado, Madrid. Art very much in the service of royalty This was intended for the Hall of Realms in the Buen Retiro palace to show many Spanish victories - the audience would have been other royalty, ambassadors, nobles and is very much about international diplomacy and bolstering the power and authority of the Crown Count-Duke of Olivares influential in this -northern Netherlands had broken away from Spain in late 16c and there were Continuing military conflicts w/ this protestant region. =this shows vicotry in 1625 sharp looking spaniards with bedraggled, defeated dutch on left -Mayor of Breda hands keys of city to Spanish General Ambrogio di Sp ínola (merciful because he has dismounted and not forced Justinus of Nassau to kneel -Baroque art was in many ways a very elite, international art in the service of the great monarchies and of the politically powerful Count-duke of Olivares
*PETER PAUL RUBENS, Elevation of the Cross, Antwerp Cathedral, Antwerp, Belgium, 1610. Flemish. Raised in Germany but returned to Antwerp. Traveled to Italy as a young, studied Renaissance masters as well as Caravaggio; in Spain studied Titian -Admirable: Ruben ’s control and synthesis of Renaissance and Baroque Influences into a style all his own -comissioned for Antwerp cathedral -engraved and widely emulated in Catholic countries esp. Spain and Latin America -dynamic diagonal composition -carravagiasque chiaroscuro, but with Rubens own colorful stamp -plump, solid figures with writhing, energetic poses- influence of Michelangelo -masterful brushwork [loose, painterly] -importance of Rubens engravings for worlewide emulation, esp. sp colonies
*PETER PAUL RUBENS, Arrival of Marie de ’ Medici at Marseilles, 1622–1625. Oil on canvas -part of a cycle of 22 paintings for an unfortunately unpopular queen for Palais de Luxembourg) -Baroque art in service of royalty- its two great roles of Baroque art Counter-Reformation and secular, aristocratic patronage. But Baroque art communicative emphasis -one of Rubens many portraits, he moved in rich and powerful circles all over Europe.
Figure 24-38 ANTHONY VAN DYCK, Charles I Dismounted, ca. 1635. Oil on canvas, approx. 9 ’ x 7’. Louvre, Paris. Flemish assistant of Rubens, left Antworp for Genoa and then London This is of the ENGLISH king Charles Stuart River thames in background, Handler of hourse and page (barely visible) -a surprisingly casual portrait, but regal pose. -compositin: slightly off center, but his glance across the space at the viewer balances composition (breaking space) -this style greatly influenced English portraiture for nexxt several centuries CONTRAST ??? ROYAL PORTRAITURE?
QUESTIONS What were the consequences of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation? How does art influence or reflect religion? How does Protestant art differ from Catholic art during the Reformation and Counter Reformation? What were some of the diverse cultures and artistic styles in Spain and Northern Europe? What accounted for them? Who are some of the artists from the 16 th century Spain and Northern Europe? Does religion influence art today? If so, how? How prevalent is religious art today? Why?
Ch.24-Ch.25 Baroque III Spain and Flanders-slideshare
Baroque III <ul><li>Spain (Ch. 24) </li></ul><ul><li>Flanders (Ch. 25) </li></ul>TERMS: Genre scene Allegory Impasto Alcázar Philip IV of Spain Count-Duke of Olivares
Figure 25-2 PETER PAUL RUBENS, Elevation of the Cross, Antwerp Cathedral, Antwerp, Belgium, 1610. Oil on panel, 15 ’ 1 7/8 ” x 11 ’ 1 1/2 ” (center panel), 15' 1 7/8" x 4' 11" (each wing).
Figure 25-3 PETER PAUL RUBENS, Arrival of Marie de ’ Medici at Marseilles, 1622–1625. Oil on canvas, approx. 5 ’ 1 ” x 3 ’ 9 1/2 ” . Louvre, Paris.
Figure 25-5 ANTHONY VAN DYCK, Charles I Dismounted, ca. 1635. Oil on canvas, approx. 9 ’ x 7 ’ . Louvre, Paris.
Questions: <ul><li>What were the consequences of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation? </li></ul><ul><li>How does art influence or reflect religion? How does Protestant art differ from Catholic art during the Reformation and Counter Reformation? </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the diverse cultures and artistic styles in Spain and Northern Europe? What accounted for them? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are some of the artists from the 16 th century Spain and Northern Europe? </li></ul><ul><li>Does religion influence art today? If so, how? How prevalent is religious art today? Why? </li></ul>