MSW to energy conversion Technology

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this presentaion is on Municiple solid waste to energy conversion related technology which is used in world wide

this presentaion is on Municiple solid waste to energy conversion related technology which is used in world wide

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  • 1. Technology
    Used for MSW to Energy conversion
  • 2. Type of thermal process Technology
    Mass burn (incineration)
    Pyrolysis
    Conventional Gasification
    Plasma Arc Gasification.
    Plasma process Using coal
    RDF Technology.
  • 3. Mass burn system
    The mass burn system generally burns unprocessed or minimally processed commingle solid waste & recovers energy.
    Operating mass burn facility capacity generally ranges from about 200 to 3000 tons per day.
    Operating temperatures between 850°C to 1250°C.
    Operations:
    >waste storage & feed preparation
    >combustion in afurnace,producing hot gases & bottom ash residue for disposal.
    >Gas temperature reduction, frequently involving heat recovery via steam generation.
    >Treatment of the cooled gas to remove air pollutants, and disposal of residuals from this treatment process
    >dispersion of treated gas to the atmosphere through an induced-draft fan &stack.
  • 4. Mass burn System
    Emissions
    stack
    Heat Recovery
    Waste
    Storage
    Feed Preparation
    Combustion
    Air pollution
    control
    Gas
    Temperature
    Reduction
    Fan
    Scrubber
    Water or Ash
    handling
    Ash
    Handling
  • 5. The thermal decomposition of organic fraction of solid waste at elevated temperatures.
    The range is about 400-900 °C.
    Pyrolysis:
    Operation:
    >The preprocessed MSW material is fed into pyrolysis reactor.
    >Produced Raw synthesis(CO &H2 mixture) overhead & bottom ash.
    >Syngas clean up is deigned to remove carry over particulate matter from the reactor.
    >Syngas is used in the power
    generation plant to produced energy.(steam and electricity)
    > Ash ,Carbon char& metals have used as recycables in industry.
  • 6. Pyrolysis process
    Syngas
    cleanup
    Air
    emission
    Syngas
    By products
    Such as Sulfar & acid gases
    Pyrolysis
    reactor
    preprocessing
    Power generation
    *Electrical energy
    *steam
    Feedstock
    MSW
    Recyclables
    Electricity
    To Grid
    Ash carbon
    &metals
  • 7. A thermal process, which converts carbonaceous materials such as MSW into Syngas using a limited quantity of air or oxygen.
    Temperature is 1450 to 3000°F
    Some basic chemical reaction in gasification process are:
    C+O2=CO2
    C+H2O=CO+H2
    C+2H2=CH4
    C+CO2=2CO
    CO+H2O=CO2+H2
    C (n)+n H2O=n CO+(n+1/2m)H2
    Conventional Gasification
  • 8. Conventional Gasification
    Syngas
    cleanup
    Air
    emission
    Syngas
    By products
    Such as Sulfar & acid gases
    Air/O2
    Pyrolysis
    reactor
    preprocessing
    Power generation
    *Electrical energy
    *steam
    Feedstock
    MSW
    Recyclables
    Electricity
    To Grid
    Ash carbon
    &
    metals
  • 9. Plasma process Using coal
  • 10. Typical coal Fired power
    plant
  • 11. Plasma MSW Processing System Schematic
  • 12. Concept
    • Collocate MSW plasma processing plants (in modules of 1,000 TPD) with
    existing operational coal-fired power plants.
    • The amount of coal supplied to a plant will be reduced, proportionate to the thermal output of the MSW plant.
    • The hot gaseous emissions from the plasma plant afterburner system will be fed directly into the coal plant combustion chamber to supplement the combusted coal gases.
    • The combined plasma and coal gaseous emissions would produce steam and power equal to the normal coal plant generating capacity.
    • MSW would replace large volumes of coal for power generation in a very
    efficient, cost-effective and environmentally cleaner operation
  • 13. PLASMA PROCESSINOF MSW AT COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS
  • 14. MSW Processing Advantages
    • Plant capital costs reduced by over 50%.
    – Utilize power plant boiler, generation and emission control systems
    • More than 50% more electrical energy from MSW gases.
    – Large coal-fired generation systems are more efficient (~35%) than smaller.
    generation systems for MSW alone (~20%)
    • Significantly lower operating costs
    – Use of power plant systems reduces number of MSW-associated systems
    • Salable solid residue
    – Gravel, sand, aggregate for concrete, asphalt and concrete pavers
    • Cost-competitive with landfill tipping fees throughout most of U.S.
    • Need for landfills is eliminated
  • 15. RDF Technology
    *Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) or solid recovered fuel is a fuel produced by shredding and dehydrating solid waste(MSW) with a Waste converter technology. RDF consists largely of combustible components of municipal waste such as plastics and biodegradable waste.
    What is RDF ?
  • 16. REFUSE DERIVED FUEL - PELLETS
  • 17. RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) Characteristics
    > Calorific Value: 2500 – 3000 Kcal/Kg
    • High Volatile Matter ( 60% )
    >Emission characteristics of RDF are superior
    compared to coal with less NOX, SOX, CO &
    CO2.
    > Bio fertilizer and the Fly ash are the useful by
    products.
  • 18. MSW
    source
    Receiving storage handling
    Primary Process size Reduction
    Combustion
    System
    Air pollution control system
    RDF storage Melting & feed
    Secondary Process:
    Densification
    Landfill
    Recovered Material
    Materials Recovery potential steam
    Source
    Separation RDF -1
    Dry process
    Direct Reject Process Ash Particu-
    Disposal Waste Residue late/
    Residue
    RDF technology:
  • 19. Advantages of RDF
    It has higher calorific value than mixed solid waste.
    It has low ash content
    Its uniform size and more homogenous nature as waste is shredded.
    The smaller size of combustion system.
  • 20. Thank you to all
  • 21. PREPARED BY
    ApuBanik
    Ahasanullah University of Science &Technology.
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering