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Type of thermal process Technology Mass burn (incineration) Pyrolysis Conventional Gasification Plasma Arc Gasification. Plasma process Using coal RDF Technology.
Mass burn system The mass burn system generally burns unprocessed or minimally processed commingle solid waste & recovers energy. Operating mass burn facility capacity generally ranges from about 200 to 3000 tons per day. Operating temperatures between 850°C to 1250°C. Operations: >waste storage & feed preparation >combustion in afurnace,producing hot gases & bottom ash residue for disposal. >Gas temperature reduction, frequently involving heat recovery via steam generation. >Treatment of the cooled gas to remove air pollutants, and disposal of residuals from this treatment process >dispersion of treated gas to the atmosphere through an induced-draft fan &stack.
Mass burn System Emissions stack Heat Recovery Waste Storage Feed Preparation Combustion Air pollution control Gas Temperature Reduction Fan Scrubber Water or Ash handling Ash Handling
The thermal decomposition of organic fraction of solid waste at elevated temperatures. The range is about 400-900 °C. Pyrolysis: Operation: >The preprocessed MSW material is fed into pyrolysis reactor. >Produced Raw synthesis(CO &H2 mixture) overhead & bottom ash. >Syngas clean up is deigned to remove carry over particulate matter from the reactor. >Syngas is used in the power generation plant to produced energy.(steam and electricity) > Ash ,Carbon char& metals have used as recycables in industry.
Pyrolysis process Syngas cleanup Air emission Syngas By products Such as Sulfar & acid gases Pyrolysis reactor preprocessing Power generation *Electrical energy *steam Feedstock MSW Recyclables Electricity To Grid Ash carbon &metals
A thermal process, which converts carbonaceous materials such as MSW into Syngas using a limited quantity of air or oxygen. Temperature is 1450 to 3000°F Some basic chemical reaction in gasification process are: C+O2=CO2 C+H2O=CO+H2 C+2H2=CH4 C+CO2=2CO CO+H2O=CO2+H2 C (n)+n H2O=n CO+(n+1/2m)H2 Conventional Gasification
Conventional Gasification Syngas cleanup Air emission Syngas By products Such as Sulfar & acid gases Air/O2 Pyrolysis reactor preprocessing Power generation *Electrical energy *steam Feedstock MSW Recyclables Electricity To Grid Ash carbon & metals
Concept • Collocate MSW plasma processing plants (in modules of 1,000 TPD) with existing operational coal-fired power plants. • The amount of coal supplied to a plant will be reduced, proportionate to the thermal output of the MSW plant. • The hot gaseous emissions from the plasma plant afterburner system will be fed directly into the coal plant combustion chamber to supplement the combusted coal gases. • The combined plasma and coal gaseous emissions would produce steam and power equal to the normal coal plant generating capacity. • MSW would replace large volumes of coal for power generation in a very efficient, cost-effective and environmentally cleaner operation
PLASMA PROCESSINOF MSW AT COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS
MSW Processing Advantages • Plant capital costs reduced by over 50%. – Utilize power plant boiler, generation and emission control systems • More than 50% more electrical energy from MSW gases. – Large coal-fired generation systems are more efficient (~35%) than smaller. generation systems for MSW alone (~20%) • Significantly lower operating costs – Use of power plant systems reduces number of MSW-associated systems • Salable solid residue – Gravel, sand, aggregate for concrete, asphalt and concrete pavers • Cost-competitive with landfill tipping fees throughout most of U.S. • Need for landfills is eliminated
RDF Technology *Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) or solid recovered fuel is a fuel produced by shredding and dehydrating solid waste(MSW) with a Waste converter technology. RDF consists largely of combustible components of municipal waste such as plastics and biodegradable waste. What is RDF ?
>Emission characteristics of RDF are superior compared to coal with less NOX, SOX, CO & CO2. > Bio fertilizer and the Fly ash are the useful by products.
MSW source Receiving storage handling Primary Process size Reduction Combustion System Air pollution control system RDF storage Melting & feed Secondary Process: Densification Landfill Recovered Material Materials Recovery potential steam Source Separation RDF -1 Dry process Direct Reject Process Ash Particu- Disposal Waste Residue late/ Residue RDF technology:
Advantages of RDF It has higher calorific value than mixed solid waste. It has low ash content Its uniform size and more homogenous nature as waste is shredded. The smaller size of combustion system.