Punctuations, Capitalization, Numbers Punctuations are used to mark the grammatical connection and the dependence of the parts of the sentence. Comma <ul><li>Use comma to join two independent clauses (comma with coordinating conjunctions) </li></ul>Road construction is inconvenient , but it is necessary.
Comma <ul><li>Use comma after an introductory phrase, prepositional phrase, or dependent clause. </li></ul>After the wedding , the guests attended the reception. <ul><li>Use comma to separate elements in a series. </li></ul>To get good grades , students must complete all their assignments. In their speeches, many candidates promised to help protect the environment , bring about world peace , and end world hunger.
Comma <ul><li>Use comma between coordinate adjectives (adjectives that are equal and reversible.) </li></ul>The sturdy , compact suitcase made a perfect gift. <ul><li>Use comma after a transitional element (however, therefore, nonetheless, also, otherwise, finally, instead, thus, of course, above all, for example, in other words, as a result, on the other hand, in conclusion, in addition) </li></ul>For example , the Red Sox, Yankees, and Indians are popular baseball teams.
Comma <ul><li>Use comma in a personal title. </li></ul>Pam Smith , MD Mike Rose , Chief Financial Officer for Operations , reported the quarter's earnings. <ul><li>Use comma to separate a town or city name from the state or province. </li></ul>West Lafayette , Indiana Mexico , Pampanga NOTE: Avoid comma splices (two independent clauses joined only by a comma) . Instead, separate the clauses with a period, a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction, or a semicolon. Comma Splice:The sun is high , put on some sunblock. Correct: The sun is high , so put on some sunblock.
Semicolon <ul><li>Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses when the second clause restates the first or when the two clauses are of equal emphasis. </li></ul>Road construction in Dallas has hindered travel around town ; streets have become covered with bulldozers, trucks, and cones. <ul><li>Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses when the second clause begins with a conjunctive adverb (however, therefore, moreover, furthermore, thus, meanwhile, nonetheless, otherwise) or a transition (in fact, for example, that is, for instance, in addition...) </li></ul>Terrorism in the United States has become a recent concer ; in fact, the concern for America's safety has led to an awareness of global terrorism.
Semicolon <ul><li>Use a semicolon to join elements of a series when individual items of the series already include comma. </li></ul>Recent sites of the Olympic Games include Athens, Greece ; Salt Lake City, Utah ; Sydney, Australia ; Nagano, Japan ; Beijing, China.
Colon <ul><li>Use a colon to join two independent clauses when you wish to emphasize the second clause. </li></ul>Road construction in Dallas has hindered travel around town : parts of Main, Fifth, and West Street are closed during the construction. <ul><li>Use a colon after an independent clause when it is followed by a list, a quotation, appositive, or other idea directly related to the independent clause. </li></ul>Julie went to the store for some groceries : milk, bread, coffee, and cheese.
Colon <ul><li>Use a colon at the end of a business letter greeting. </li></ul>To Whom It May Concern : <ul><li>Use a colon to separate the hour and minute(s) in a time notation. </li></ul>1 : 45 PM, 2 : 00 AM or simply 2 AM <ul><li>Use a colon to separate the chapter and verse in a Biblical reference. </li></ul>Matthew 1 : 6-10
Colon <ul><li>Use a colon in enumerating a list with the heading constructed in a phrase form. This is a very useful tool for the HKA. </li></ul>Some Michael Jackson Songs : - Billy Jean - Thriller - Bad
Parentheses <ul><li>Use parentheses to emphasize content. </li></ul>Muhammad Ali ( 1942-present ) , arguably the greatest athlete of all time, claimed he would “float like a butterfly and sting like a bee.” Dash <ul><li>Use a dash to set off or emphasize the content enclosed within dashes or the content that follows the dash. </li></ul>One reason why the term has been so problematic — so resistant to definition, and yet so transitory in those definitions — is because of its multitude of applications.
Dash <ul><li>Use a dash to set off an appositive phrase that already includes commas. </li></ul>The cousins — Tina, Lina, and Victor — arrived at the party together. Quotation Marks <ul><li>Use quotation marks to enclose direct quotations. Note that commas and periods are placed inside the closing quotation mark, and colons and semicolons are placed outside. The placement of question and exclamation marks depends on the situation. </li></ul>James asked, “ When will you be arriving? “
Quotation Marks <ul><li>Use quotation marks to indicate the novel, ironic, or reserved use of a word. </li></ul>History is stained with blood spilled in the name of “ justice. “ <ul><li>Use quotation marks around the titles of poems, songs, short stories, magazine, chapter titles, essays, speeches, films, television or radio shows. </li></ul>“ Self-Reliance “ by Ralph Waldo Emerson is the clearest example of his philosophy of individualism.
Apostrophe <ul><li>Use to form possessives of nouns. </li></ul>the hat of the boy – SAY: the boy ' s hat house of Todd and Ann – SAY: Todd and Ann's house NOTE: If the noun after “of” is a building, an object, or a piece of furniture, then NO apostrophe is needed. room of the hotel – SAY: hotel room <ul><li>Use to show the omission of letters. </li></ul>contractions: do not – don ' t, who is – who ' s, 1960 - ' 60 <ul><li>Use to indicate certain plurals of lowercase letters. </li></ul>lower case: q ' s (not qs), p ' s (not ps), mm ' s (not mms) BUT for uppercase: Qs, HKAs, G4s, many &s
Notes: <ul><li>Don't use apostrophes for possessive pronouns or plural nouns. </li></ul>wrong: his ' book correct: his book wrong: a friend of yours ' correct: a friend of yours wrong: The group made it ' s decision. correct: The group made its decision. wrong: She waited for three hours ' to get her ticket. correct: She waited for three hours to get her ticket.
Capitalization <ul><li>Capitalize the first word of a sentence </li></ul>Richard sometimes forgets his punch line. <ul><li>Capitalize the pronoun I (used only if part of a title or quoted statements) </li></ul>“ Who Am I ?” is a movie starring Jackie Chan. <ul><li>Capitalize family relationships when used as proper names. </li></ul>Cindy loves Aunt Abigail.
Capitalization <ul><li>Capitalize proper nouns. </li></ul>W orrill F abrication C ompany, G olden G ate B ridge, P aolo S antos <ul><li>Capitalize names of God, specific deities, religious figures, and holy books </li></ul>G od the F ather, the V irgin M ary, S hiva, Z eus <ul><li>Capitalize titles preceding names, but not titles that follow names. </li></ul>Cindy worked as the assistant to Mayor Hanolovi. NOT: Cindy worked with Miriam Moss, mayor of Littonville.
Capitalization <ul><li>Capitalize directions that are names ( N orth, S outh, E ast, and W est when used as sections of the country, but not as compass directions.) </li></ul>The Patels have moved to the Southwest . Jim's house is two miles north of Otterbein. <ul><li>Capitalize the days of the week, months of the year, and holidays (but not the seasons used generally). </li></ul>H olloween, O ctober, F riday NOT seasons is general: w inter, s pring, s ummer, f all BUT: Seasons are capitalized when used in a title, like The Fall 1999 semester
Capitalization <ul><li>Capitalize names of countries, nationalities and specific languages. </li></ul>C osta R ica, S panish, F rench, E nglish <ul><li>Capitalize the first word in a sentence that is a direct quote. </li></ul>Emerson once said, “ A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds.” <ul><li>The major words in titles (but not short prepositions or articles if they are not the first word of the title) </li></ul>One of Jerry's favorite books is T he C atcher i n t he R ye.
Capitalization <ul><li>Capitalize members of national, political, racial, social, civic, and athletic groups </li></ul>G reen B ay P ackers, A frican- A mericans, A nti- S emitic <ul><li>Capitalize periods and events (but not century numbers). </li></ul>V ictorian E ra, G reat D epression NOT: sixteenth century <ul><li>Capitalize trademarks. </li></ul>P epsi, H onda, IBM , M icrosoft W ord <ul><li>Capitalize words and abbreviations of specific names (but not names of things that came from specific names but are now general types.) </li></ul>F reudian, NBC , UN , NOT: pasteurize, french fries, italics
Numbers <ul><li>Number words must be written in figures (when possible) </li></ul>over two pounds – SAY: over 2 lbs. six million dollars – SAY: $6 M after thrity-one years – SAY: after 31 years eighty three people – SAY: 83 people 4.78 liters – SAY: 4.78 L BUT: two 20-dollar bills – NOT: two twenty-dollar bills five 75-year old men – NOT: five seventy-five-year old men Writing Numbers as an HKA
Numbers <ul><li>Days and years </li></ul>John was born on January 12, 1965 Latest news in Belgium, 07/09/09 SAY: AD 1066 – NOT: A.D. 1066 SAY: 1971-72 – NOT: 1998-02, instead 1998-2002 SAY: the 80s, the 20th century – NOT: the eighties, the twentieth century (although correct, remember, HKAs must save space for other important info) SAY: the 1980s
Numbers <ul><li>Time of day </li></ul>eight o'clock in the morning – SAY: 8 AM half-past four in the afternoon – SAY: 4:30 PM 10:45 in the morning – SAY: 10:45 AM <ul><li>Addresses </li></ul>16 Tenth Street 350 West 114 Street NOTE: Don't change how addresses are written except when the answer is too long and other words, such as Street (St.), Boulevard (Blvd.) can be abbreviated
Numbers <ul><li>Identification numbers </li></ul>page 30, chapter 6 in act 3, scene 2 OR in Act II, Scene ii NOTE: Don't change how page and divisions are written except when the answer is too long and other words, such as page (p.), pages (pp.), chapter (chap.) can be abbreviated Room 8, Channel 18, Interstate 65, Henry VIIIh NOTE: Don't change how identification numbers are written except when the answer is too long and other words, such as Room (Rm.), Floor (Fl.), Building (Bldg.) can be abbreviated <ul><li>Page and division of books and plays </li></ul>
Numbers <ul><li>Decimals and percentages </li></ul>four billion dollars or 4 billion – SAY: $4B 16,500,000 or 16.5 million – SAY: 16.5M 2.7 average 13 1/4 percent – SAY: 13 1/4% OR 13.25% .98 milliliters – SAY: .98 ml <ul><li>Round off large numbers </li></ul>
Numbers SAY: 2 apples, 6 oranges and 3 bananas NOT: two apples, 6 oranges and 3 bananas SAY: 115 feet by 90 feet OR 115 ft x 90 ft OR 115' x 90' SAY: The vote was 9 in favor and 5 opposed. NOT: The vote was nine in favor and 5 opposed. NOTE: Don't change how numbers and other words are written except when the answer is too long and other words, such as feet (ft. or “), inches (in. or '), by (x) can be abbreviated. <ul><li>Numbers in a series and statistics must be consistent. </li></ul>Numbers Usage Notes
Numbers Six percent of the group failed. - SAY: 6% of the group failed. Five hundred of the population - SAY: 500 of the population <ul><li>In formal writing, write out numbers beginning sentences; however, HKA can use the number figure. </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers from sites with non-American information, don't change how they are written. </li></ul>French: 2 345 (use space as separator, not 2,345) 2,35 deg C (use comma [,] instead of period [.], not 2.35 deg C)
Numbers NOT: The club celebrated the birthdays of 6 90-year-olds who were born in the city. (may cause the reader to read '690' as one number) SAY: The club celebrated the birthdays of six 90-year-olds who were born in the city. <ul><li>Use a combination of figures and words for numbers when such a combination will keep the information clear. </li></ul>