Use comma between coordinate adjectives (adjectives that are equal and reversible.)
The sturdy , compact suitcase made a perfect gift.
Use comma after a transitional element (however, therefore, nonetheless, also, otherwise, finally, instead, thus, of course, above all, for example, in other words, as a result, on the other hand, in conclusion, in addition)
For example , the Red Sox, Yankees, and Indians are popular baseball teams.
Pam Smith , MD Mike Rose , Chief Financial Officer for Operations , reported the quarter's earnings.
Use comma to separate a town or city name from the state or province.
West Lafayette , Indiana Mexico , Pampanga NOTE: Avoid comma splices (two independent clauses joined only by a comma) . Instead, separate the clauses with a period, a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction, or a semicolon. Comma Splice:The sun is high , put on some sunblock. Correct: The sun is high , so put on some sunblock.
Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses when the second clause restates the first or when the two clauses are of equal emphasis.
Road construction in Dallas has hindered travel around town ; streets have become covered with bulldozers, trucks, and cones.
Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses when the second clause begins with a conjunctive adverb (however, therefore, moreover, furthermore, thus, meanwhile, nonetheless, otherwise) or a transition (in fact, for example, that is, for instance, in addition...)
Terrorism in the United States has become a recent concer ; in fact, the concern for America's safety has led to an awareness of global terrorism.
Use a dash to set off an appositive phrase that already includes commas.
The cousins — Tina, Lina, and Victor — arrived at the party together. Quotation Marks
Use quotation marks to enclose direct quotations. Note that commas and periods are placed inside the closing quotation mark, and colons and semicolons are placed outside. The placement of question and exclamation marks depends on the situation.
the hat of the boy – SAY: the boy ' s hat house of Todd and Ann – SAY: Todd and Ann's house NOTE: If the noun after “of” is a building, an object, or a piece of furniture, then NO apostrophe is needed. room of the hotel – SAY: hotel room
Use to show the omission of letters.
contractions: do not – don ' t, who is – who ' s, 1960 - ' 60
Use to indicate certain plurals of lowercase letters.
lower case: q ' s (not qs), p ' s (not ps), mm ' s (not mms) BUT for uppercase: Qs, HKAs, G4s, many &s
Don't use apostrophes for possessive pronouns or plural nouns.
wrong: his ' book correct: his book wrong: a friend of yours ' correct: a friend of yours wrong: The group made it ' s decision. correct: The group made its decision. wrong: She waited for three hours ' to get her ticket. correct: She waited for three hours to get her ticket.
Number words must be written in figures (when possible)
over two pounds – SAY: over 2 lbs. six million dollars – SAY: $6 M after thrity-one years – SAY: after 31 years eighty three people – SAY: 83 people 4.78 liters – SAY: 4.78 L BUT: two 20-dollar bills – NOT: two twenty-dollar bills five 75-year old men – NOT: five seventy-five-year old men Writing Numbers as an HKA
John was born on January 12, 1965 Latest news in Belgium, 07/09/09 SAY: AD 1066 – NOT: A.D. 1066 SAY: 1971-72 – NOT: 1998-02, instead 1998-2002 SAY: the 80s, the 20th century – NOT: the eighties, the twentieth century (although correct, remember, HKAs must save space for other important info) SAY: the 1980s
page 30, chapter 6 in act 3, scene 2 OR in Act II, Scene ii NOTE: Don't change how page and divisions are written except when the answer is too long and other words, such as page (p.), pages (pp.), chapter (chap.) can be abbreviated Room 8, Channel 18, Interstate 65, Henry VIIIh NOTE: Don't change how identification numbers are written except when the answer is too long and other words, such as Room (Rm.), Floor (Fl.), Building (Bldg.) can be abbreviated
four billion dollars or 4 billion – SAY: $4B 16,500,000 or 16.5 million – SAY: 16.5M 2.7 average 13 1/4 percent – SAY: 13 1/4% OR 13.25% .98 milliliters – SAY: .98 ml
Round off large numbers
Numbers SAY: 2 apples, 6 oranges and 3 bananas NOT: two apples, 6 oranges and 3 bananas SAY: 115 feet by 90 feet OR 115 ft x 90 ft OR 115' x 90' SAY: The vote was 9 in favor and 5 opposed. NOT: The vote was nine in favor and 5 opposed. NOTE: Don't change how numbers and other words are written except when the answer is too long and other words, such as feet (ft. or “), inches (in. or '), by (x) can be abbreviated.
Numbers in a series and statistics must be consistent.
Numbers Usage Notes
Numbers Six percent of the group failed. - SAY: 6% of the group failed. Five hundred of the population - SAY: 500 of the population
In formal writing, write out numbers beginning sentences; however, HKA can use the number figure.
Numbers from sites with non-American information, don't change how they are written.
French: 2 345 (use space as separator, not 2,345) 2,35 deg C (use comma [,] instead of period [.], not 2.35 deg C)
Numbers NOT: The club celebrated the birthdays of 6 90-year-olds who were born in the city. (may cause the reader to read '690' as one number) SAY: The club celebrated the birthdays of six 90-year-olds who were born in the city.
Use a combination of figures and words for numbers when such a combination will keep the information clear.