SENTENCES Sentence - a grammatical unit that is composed of one or more clauses. Carmela studies the French language. (contains 1 clause) Clause - a grammatical unit that includes, at minimum, a predicate and an explicit or implied subject, and expresses a proposition (—meaning of a clause that is constant) . Carmela studies the French language, although she can already speak it. (contains 2 clauses) Jen ate the apple. The apple was eaten by Jen. Did Jen eat the apple? Jen , eat the banana.
Types of Clause Independent Clause (ic) - contains a subject, a verb, and a complete thought. Mario joined the basketball team. Dependent (Subordinate) Clause (dc) - contains a subject and a verb, but no complete thought . when Mario joined the basketball team Cris coaches her agents diligently. while Cris coaches her agents diligently
Kinds of Clause Adverbial Clause – a subordinate clause that has an adverb-like function in modifying another clause; tells how, when, why, how much, to what extent and under what conditions the action in the main clause takes place; begins with subordinating conjunctions, like after, although, as, as if, as long as, as soon as, because, before, if, in order that, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, while. Jerome kept quiet in order that he could avoid trouble . Since James was disruptive, he was expelled from school. If we continue burning fossil fuels, the temperature of the earth will rise. Franklin Roosevelt served as Governor of New York before he became President of the United States .
Kinds of Clause Coordinate Clause – a clause belonging to a series of two or more clauses which are not syntactically dependent one on another, and are joined by means of coordinating conjunctions, (like and, but, or) , connectives ( like and, whereas, in case, thus) , or parataxis (syntactic units without use of a conjunction). Jane will go home and Jim will go to work. Pedro likes hamburgers but Maria prefers hot dogs. The family might go to Cebu, or they might go to Davao. Mr. Ramos is an engineer , isn't he?
Kinds of Clause Equative Clause – a clause which describes a feature of its subject; contains a subject complement and, typically, a copula (an intransitivity verb which links a subject to a noun phrase, adjective, or other constituent which expresses the predicate) . Mr. Lopez is a doctor . The weather seems good . The book is on the table . Elizabeth is the queen . The old man slept on the park bench .
Kinds of Clause Existential Clause – a clause having a distinctive grammatical structure, which expresses the real or imagined existence of an entity. Construction: “ there + verb [typically be ] + noun phrase.” There was a man . There are boys in the yard . NOTE: This kind of clause is rarely used, especially if all details of the information are known. There is a law in the Philippines against domestic violence which is under R.A. 8369 . SAY: R.A. 8369 is a law in the Philippines against domestic violence .
Kinds of Clause Nominal Clause – a subordinate clause that functions as a noun phrase. Mrs. Reyes knows that her son is in the mall . The visitors thought that the President was coming . The judge heard the evidence that the suspect did the crime . (complement clause- a kind of nominal clause)
Kinds of Clause Relative Clause – a subordinate clause that functions as an adjective; begins with relative pronouns and adverbs, like who (for people), whom (as object of the clause), whose (indicates possession), which (for things), that (for both things & people), where (for place), when (for time), why (for reason) . Albert Einstein, who put forward the theory of relativity, is considered by many as the most intelligent person in human history. All students whose registration numbers begin with 374 should immediately go to the library for a tour. Computer games that involve fighting and shooting apparently have a negative effect on young people.
Types of Sentence According to Structure Simple Sentence – has one independent clause. Francis reads newspapers. Francis reads pocketbooks. Francis reads newspapers and pocketbooks. Francis reads and enjoys newspapers and pocketbooks. Francis and Max read and enjoy newspapers and pocketbooks. Francis and Max read and enjoy newspapers.
Types of Sentence According to Structure Compound Sentence – has two or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) , conjunctive adverb (like h owever, therefore ) or a semicolon (;) . Francis reads newspapers , but Max reads pocketbooks. Francis reads newspapers ; however, Max reads pocketbooks. Francis reads newspapers ; Max reads pocketbooks. Punctuation: independent clause +, + coordinating conjunction + independent clause Punctuation: independent clause +; + conjunctive adverb + independent clause Punctuation: independent clause +; + independent clause
Types of Sentence According to Structure Complex Sentence – has one dependent clause (starting with a subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun) joined to one independent clause. Although Francis reads newspapers , Max reads pocketbooks. People who read newspapers rarely read pocketbooks. Punctuation: dependent clause +, + independent clause Punctuation: independent clause + dependent clause Francis reads newspapers although Max reads pocketbooks. Francis, who reads newspapers , rarely reads pocketbooks. Punctuation: independent + , + nonessential dependent clause + , + clause Punctuation: independent + essential dependent clause + clause
Types of Sentence According to Structure Compound-Complex Sentence – has two or more independent clauses joined by one or more dependent clauses. While Francis reads newspapers (dc) , Max reads pocketbooks (ic) , but Jim reads only magazines (ic) . Punctuation: follow the rules for compound and complex sentences Francis reads newspapers (ic) , but Max reads pocketbooks (ic) because science journals are too difficult (dc) . Max , who reads pocketbooks (dc) , rarely reads newspapers (ic) ; however, Francis enjoys newspapers (ic) . People who read pocketbooks (dc) rarely read newspapers (ic) ; they often find science journals difficult (ic) .
Types of Sentence According to Purpose
Declarative - a sentence that makes a statement and ends with a full stop.
Alex is the new trainee.
Imperative - a sentence that gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end with a full stop. A strong command ends with an exclamation point (!).
Close the door please. Take your hands off me!
Interrogative - a sentence that asks a question and ends with a question mark.
When will the next training be? Is it true that this is Manny's last fight?
Exclamatory - a sentence that shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point.
Coordination vs Subordination Tools in Building Sentences Coordination – the grammatical connection of two or more ideas to give them equal emphasis and importance. Common connectors are the coordinate conjunctions such as and, but, yet, or, for. The national speed limit has been repealed. Road accidents have increased sharply. The national speed limit has been repealed, and road accidents have increased sharply. (coordinated by and ) Subordination – the grammatical connection where words, phrases, or clauses make one element of a sentence dependent on ( or subordinate to ) another. This uses subordinate conjunctions like because, since, while, when, etc. or the relative pronouns which, that, who, whom, whose. An atheist is a man who has no invisible means of support . (subordinated by an adjective clause introduced by who ) A platitude is simply a truth repeated until people get tired of hearing it. (subordinated by an adverb clause of time introduced by until )
Building Sentences with Adjective Clauses Adjective clause – modifies a noun; the most common adjective clause is the relative clause (begins with a relative pronoun). Combine the following sentences to show that one is a subordinate of the other sentence using an adjective clause. Note: An adjective clause is used to show subordination— i.e., one part of the sentence is secondary (or subordinate) to another part. Mr. Santos is a superstitious man. He always sets his unicorn traps at night. Coordinating: Mr. Santos is a superstitious man, and he always sets his unicorn traps at night. (shows emphasis on both sentences) Subordinating: Mr. Santos, who is a superstitious man , always sets his unicorn traps at night. (the adjective clause which describes the subject is a subordinate of the main clause) Subordinating: Mr. Santos, who always sets his unicorn traps at night , is a superstitious man. (the adjective clause which describes the subject is a subordinate of the main clause)
Building Sentences with Adverb Clauses Adverb clause – modifies a verb, an adjective, an adverb, or the whole sentence where it appears; the most common adverb clause begins with a subordinate conjunction. Combine the two sentences by turning the first sentence into an adverb clause beginning with an appropriate subordinating conjunction of concession or comparison . Note: An adverb clause is used to show subordination— i.e., one part of the sentence is secondary (or subordinate) to another part. Work stops. Expenses run on. Even though work stops, expenses run on. Combine the two sentences by turning the second sentence into an adverb clause beginning with an appropriate subordinating conjunction of place . Diane wants to live somewhere. The sun shines every day there. Diane wants to live where the sun shines every day.
Building Sentences with Adverb Clauses Arranging Adverb Clauses After the main clause (most common): The employees waited at the building's ground floor until the rain stopped. At the beginning (if it precedes the action in the main clause; set off by a comma): When Mr. Gamboa asked for a raise, he was handed his termination paper. Inside the main clause (usually between the subject and the verb; set off by commas): The best thing to do, when a student is failing his math subject and he is finally graduating that semester, is to get a tutor. With 2 adverb clauses, place one in front of the main clause and the other after it (follow punctuation tip above): When a bus skidded into a river just outside of New Delhi, all 78 passengers drowned because they belonged to two separate castes and refused to share the same rope to climb to safety.
Building Sentences with Adverb Clauses Reducing Adverb Clauses Reduce to a phrase when the subject of the adverb clause is the same as the subject of the main clause: If your luggage is lost or destroyed, it should be replaced by the airline. Revised: If lost or destroyed, your luggage should be replaced by the airline. The forest supports incessant warfare, most of which is hidden and silent, although the forest looks peaceful . Revised: Although it looks peaceful, t he forest supports incessant warfare, most of which is hidden and silent .
Building Sentences with Appositives From Adjective [Relative] Clause to Appositive – to cut clutter in writing, reduce the relative clause to an appositive. Combine these 2 sentences: Jango Milby is a professional magician. Jango Milby performed at Annie's birthday party. Using an adjective [relative] clause: Jango Milby, who is a professional magician , performed at Annie's birthday party. Using an appositive (better): Jango Milby, a professional magician , performed at Annie's birthday party. Reminder: Not all adjective clauses can be shortened to appositives in this fashion--only those that contain a form of the verb to be (is, are, was, were) .
Building Sentences with Appositives Arranging Appositives Directly after the noun: Barack Obama, the first African-American US President, was elected on November 4, 2008. Before the noun: A golf superstar, Tiger Woods hits his tee shot on the 15th hole. At the end of a sentence for emphasis: At the far end of the pasture, the most magnificent animal I had ever seen was cautiously edging toward a salt-lick block— a white-tailed deer. Reminder: This sentence demonstrates a different way of punctuating appositives--with dashes. When the appositive itself contains commas, setting off the construction with dashes helps to prevent confusion. Using dashes instead of commas also serves to emphasize the appositive. At any part of the sentence near a noun: People are summed up largely by the roles they fill in society— wife or husband, soldier or salesperson, student or scientist— and by the qualities that others ascribe to them. (appositive refers to roles )
Building Sentences with Appositives Four Variations Appositives that repeat a noun: People must find a focus in their lives at an early age, a focus that is beyond the mechanics of earning a living or coping with a household . Negative appositives (identifies what someone or something is not; begins with not, never, or rather than) : Team Leaders and HKAs, rather than staff specialists, are primarily responsible for quality assurance. Multiple appositives (2 or more appositives may appear alongside the same noun) : Manila, a city of almost two-million people, the Philippines' capital, was established during the Spanish era. List appositives with pronouns (like all, these, or everyone ) : Parks in memory of great Filipinos, churches of ornate Spanish designs, the bustling port area along Manila Bay— all depict the rich historical evolution of the City of Manila.
Building Sentences with Phrases Prepositional Phrase – can be used to add essential information Vague: The workers gather a rich variety and distribute it. Clear: From many sources, the workers at the Angeles Food Packers gather a rich variety of surplus and unsalable food and distribute it to soup kitchens, day-care centers, and homes for the elderly. Dissecting the information: Which workers?- the workers at the Angeles Food Packers; What did they gather?- rich variety of surplus and unsalable food; Where did they gather the food?- From many sources; Who did they distribute it to?- to soup kitchens, day-care centers, and homes for the elderly.
Building Sentences with Phrases Participial Phrase – describes the action being done by the noun or pronoun. Use: To emphasize quick, successive actions E.g. Combine the three sentences by turning the verbs guided and bounced into present participles 1. Sam guided the pinball through the upper chutes, down a runover lane, off the slingshot bumpers to the flippers. 2. Sam cradled it there. 3. Sam bounced it back and forth until he had a perfect shot through the spinner. Guiding the ball through the upper chutes, down a runover lane, off the slingshot bumpers to the flippers, Sam cradled it there, bouncing it back and forth until he had a perfect shot through the spinner.
Building Sentences with Phrases Participial Phrase...cont'd Use: To suggest a cause E.g. Combine the two sentences by turning the second sentence into a participial phrase suggesting a cause. 1. Pamela finally quit her job. 2. She was discouraged by the long hours and low pay. Discouraged by the long hours and low pay, Pamela finally quit her job. OR Pamela, discouraged by the long hours and low pay, finally quit her job. Note: The above sentences, with the use of a participial phrase, show cause-effect relationship.
Building Sentences with Phrases Absolute Phrase - adds details to an entire sentence--details that often describe one aspect of someone or something mentioned elsewhere in the sentence. E.g. Combine the two sentences by turning the second sentence into an absolute phrase and place it in front of the first sentence. 1. The storks circled above the visitors. 2. Their slender bodies were sleek and black against the orange sky. Their slender bodies sleek and black against the orange sky , the storks circle above the visitors. Note: The second sentence can be turned into an absolute phrase simply by omitting the linking verb were .
Tips to Cut the Clutter – BE CONCISE! Reduce Long Clauses – edit information by reducing long clauses to shorter phrases. Wordy: The clown who was in the center ring was riding a tricycle. Revised: The clown in the center ring was riding a tricycle. Reduce Phrases – edit information by reducing phrases to single words. Wordy: The clown at the end of the line tried to sweep up the spotlight. Revised: The last clown tried to sweep up the spotlight.
Tips to Cut the Clutter – BE CONCISE! Avoid Empty Openers – edit information with openers such as There is , There are , and There were when There adds nothing to the meaning of a sentence. Wordy: There is a prize in every box of Quaker oatmeal. Revised: A prize is in every box of Quaker oatmeal. Don't Overwork Modifiers – edit words with modifiers like very , really , and totally that are meaningless. Wordy: By the time she got home, Mr. Greene was very tired. Revised: By the time she got home, Mr. Greene was exhausted. Wordy: There are two security guards at the gate. Revised: Two security guards stand at the gate.
Tips to Cut the Clutter – BE CONCISE! Avoid Redundancies – replace redundant expressions with precise words . Use Active Voice – whenever possible, make the subject of a sentence do something . Wordy: At this point in time, the trainees should edit their work. Revised: Now the trainees should edit their work. Wordy: The automated election proposal was reviewed by the senators. Revised: The senators reviewed the automated election proposal.
Tips to Cut the Clutter – BE CONCISE! Don't Show Off – "Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication." - da Vinci Cut Empty Phrases – most common phrases mean little, if anything, and should be cut from the sentence . Wordy: At this moment in time, students who are matriculating through high school should be empowered to participate in the voting process. Revised: High school students should have the right to vote. Wordy: All things being equal, what Mr. Yen is trying to say is that in his opinion all students should, in the final analysis, have the right to vote for all intents and purposes. Revised: Mr. Yen says that students should have the right to vote.
Tips to Cut the Clutter – BE CONCISE! Avoid Using Noun Forms of Verbs – this process is called “excessive nominalization (word formation where other parts of speech are used as nouns) .” Simple rule: give verbs a chance! Replace Vague Nouns – use more specific words or eliminate vague nouns altogether . Wordy: The presentation of the arguments by the students was convincing. Revised: The students presented their arguments convincingly. OR Wordy: After reading several things in the area of psychology- type subjects, Randy decided to put himself in a situation where he might change his major. Revised: After reading several psychology books, Randy decided to change his major. Revised: The students argued convincingly.
emphasizes the likeness between two or more ideas
reinforces similarities in meaning
Ways to Use Parallel Structures with elements joined by coordinating conjunctions:
Ways to Use Parallel Structures with elements in lists or in a series:
Ways to Use Parallel Structures with elements being compared: with elements joined by a linking verb or a verb of being:
Ways to Use Parallel Structures with elements joined by a correlative conjunction: with elements in a list after a colon: Faulty: 3 Main Goals of the Flu Research: - To discover the cause of the disease. - To propose a medicinal treatment. - Documenting the success of the treatment. Correct: 3 Main Goals of the Flu Research: - To discover the cause of the disease. - To propose a medicinal treatment. - To document the success of the treatment.