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010 Verbals
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  • 1. Verbals
    • A verbal is a noun or adjective formed from a verb .
    Jogging is my daily exercise. (from the verb jog, it becomes a gerund used as noun—subject of the sentence) The boiling water on the stove is for my coffee. (from the verb boil, it becomes a participle used as adjective to describe water.) To climb Mt. Everest is his greatest ambition. (from the verb climb, it becomes an infinitive used as noun—subject of the sentence)
  • 2. Kinds of Verbals - Gerunds
    • Gerunds – end in -ing that function as nouns; express action or state of being.
    Like ordinary single-word nouns, gerunds may be used as: Subject:
  • 3. Kinds of Verbals - Gerunds Direct Object:
  • 4. Kinds of Verbals - Gerunds Retained Object:
  • 5. Kinds of Verbals - Gerunds Subjective Complement:
  • 6. Kinds of Verbals - Gerunds Object of Preposition:
  • 7. Kinds of Verbals - Gerunds Appositive:
  • 8. Kinds of Verbals - Gerunds Delayed Appositive (rarely used) :
  • 9. Kinds of Verbals - Gerunds DO NOT CONFUSE GERUNDS WITH VERBS (predicates) Gerund Predicate Verb
  • 10. Kinds of Verbals - Participles
    • Participles – function as adjectives; have 2 kinds: present and past participles
    Present Participles - -ing form of the verb; created from the progressive tense used with auxiliary verb “to be” Removing the auxiliary verb “ is ” and using the -ing form of the main verb as an adjective produces a present participle. The water is boiling on the stove. (verb with auxiliary “ is ”)
  • 11. Kinds of Verbals - Participles Past Participles – usually end in -ed or -en; created from the passive voice used with auxiliary verb “to be” Removing the auxiliary verb and using the -en form of the main verb as an adjective produces a past participle.
  • 12. Kinds of Verbals - Participles Removing the auxiliary verb and using the -en form of the main verb as an adjective produces a past participle.
  • 13. Kinds of Verbals - Participles Past participles may also be part of a participial phrase.
  • 14. Kinds of Verbals - Participles Participles and participial phrases should be placed near the nouns they modify. They may either precede or follow a noun.
  • 15. Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives
    • Infinitives – formed by placing to in front of the simple present form of a verb; function as adjectives , adverbs , or nouns .
    Adjectival Infinitives - always follow the noun being described. Like gerunds and participles, infinitives may incorporate other words as part of their phrase.
  • 16. Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives Adverbial Infinitives - always describe verbs. An adverbial infinitive usually occurs at the beginning or at the end of a sentence and does not need to be near the verb it describes At the beginning At the end
  • 17. Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives HINT: You can always identify an adverbial infinitive by inserting the test words in order in front of infinitive. If the words in order make sense, the infinitive is adverbial. Punctuation: 1. Use a comma after the adverbial infinitive when it starts a sentence. 2. Do not separate the adverbial infinitive from the rest of the sentence if the infinitive ends the sentence.
  • 18. Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives Nominal Infinitives - like single-word nouns, nominal infinitives may function as a: Subject:
  • 19. Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives Direct Object:
  • 20. Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives Retained Object:
  • 21. Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives Subjective Complement:
  • 22. Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives Appositive:
  • 23. Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives Delayed Appositive: