Verbals <ul><li>A verbal is a noun or adjective formed from a verb . </li></ul>Jogging is my daily exercise. (from the verb jog, it becomes a gerund used as noun—subject of the sentence) The boiling water on the stove is for my coffee. (from the verb boil, it becomes a participle used as adjective to describe water.) To climb Mt. Everest is his greatest ambition. (from the verb climb, it becomes an infinitive used as noun—subject of the sentence)
Kinds of Verbals - Gerunds <ul><li>Gerunds – end in -ing that function as nouns; express action or state of being. </li></ul>Like ordinary single-word nouns, gerunds may be used as: Subject:
Kinds of Verbals - Gerunds DO NOT CONFUSE GERUNDS WITH VERBS (predicates) Gerund Predicate Verb
Kinds of Verbals - Participles <ul><li>Participles – function as adjectives; have 2 kinds: present and past participles </li></ul>Present Participles - -ing form of the verb; created from the progressive tense used with auxiliary verb “to be” Removing the auxiliary verb “ is ” and using the -ing form of the main verb as an adjective produces a present participle. The water is boiling on the stove. (verb with auxiliary “ is ”)
Kinds of Verbals - Participles Past Participles – usually end in -ed or -en; created from the passive voice used with auxiliary verb “to be” Removing the auxiliary verb and using the -en form of the main verb as an adjective produces a past participle.
Kinds of Verbals - Participles Removing the auxiliary verb and using the -en form of the main verb as an adjective produces a past participle.
Kinds of Verbals - Participles Past participles may also be part of a participial phrase.
Kinds of Verbals - Participles Participles and participial phrases should be placed near the nouns they modify. They may either precede or follow a noun.
Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives <ul><li>Infinitives – formed by placing to in front of the simple present form of a verb; function as adjectives , adverbs , or nouns . </li></ul>Adjectival Infinitives - always follow the noun being described. Like gerunds and participles, infinitives may incorporate other words as part of their phrase.
Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives Adverbial Infinitives - always describe verbs. An adverbial infinitive usually occurs at the beginning or at the end of a sentence and does not need to be near the verb it describes At the beginning At the end
Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives HINT: You can always identify an adverbial infinitive by inserting the test words in order in front of infinitive. If the words in order make sense, the infinitive is adverbial. Punctuation: 1. Use a comma after the adverbial infinitive when it starts a sentence. 2. Do not separate the adverbial infinitive from the rest of the sentence if the infinitive ends the sentence.
Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives Nominal Infinitives - like single-word nouns, nominal infinitives may function as a: Subject: