A verbal is a noun or adjective formed from a verb .
Jogging is my daily exercise. (from the verb jog, it becomes a gerund used as noun—subject of the sentence) The boiling water on the stove is for my coffee. (from the verb boil, it becomes a participle used as adjective to describe water.) To climb Mt. Everest is his greatest ambition. (from the verb climb, it becomes an infinitive used as noun—subject of the sentence)
Participles – function as adjectives; have 2 kinds: present and past participles
Present Participles - -ing form of the verb; created from the progressive tense used with auxiliary verb “to be” Removing the auxiliary verb “ is ” and using the -ing form of the main verb as an adjective produces a present participle. The water is boiling on the stove. (verb with auxiliary “ is ”)
Kinds of Verbals - Participles Past Participles – usually end in -ed or -en; created from the passive voice used with auxiliary verb “to be” Removing the auxiliary verb and using the -en form of the main verb as an adjective produces a past participle.
Kinds of Verbals - Participles Removing the auxiliary verb and using the -en form of the main verb as an adjective produces a past participle.
Kinds of Verbals - Participles Past participles may also be part of a participial phrase.
Kinds of Verbals - Participles Participles and participial phrases should be placed near the nouns they modify. They may either precede or follow a noun.
Infinitives – formed by placing to in front of the simple present form of a verb; function as adjectives , adverbs , or nouns .
Adjectival Infinitives - always follow the noun being described. Like gerunds and participles, infinitives may incorporate other words as part of their phrase.
Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives Adverbial Infinitives - always describe verbs. An adverbial infinitive usually occurs at the beginning or at the end of a sentence and does not need to be near the verb it describes At the beginning At the end
Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives HINT: You can always identify an adverbial infinitive by inserting the test words in order in front of infinitive. If the words in order make sense, the infinitive is adverbial. Punctuation: 1. Use a comma after the adverbial infinitive when it starts a sentence. 2. Do not separate the adverbial infinitive from the rest of the sentence if the infinitive ends the sentence.
Kinds of Verbals - Infinitives Nominal Infinitives - like single-word nouns, nominal infinitives may function as a: Subject: