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Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power
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Enhancing Soft Power: using cyberspace to enhance Soft Power

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New Tools for a War for Peace - using cyberspace, social media and social science to enhance Soft Power

New Tools for a War for Peace - using cyberspace, social media and social science to enhance Soft Power

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  • There are three types of networks in cyber space as shown on the slide.
  • Cyber security encompassespreventing, detecting, and responding to attacks on computing infrastructure.For the purpose of this talk we are only concerned about network infrastructure.Computer networks connect systems whose contents are fairly stable.Sensor networks connect sensing devices to gather up-to-date information on battlefield activities (in this context).We will talk about these aspects a bit later.
  • Treating people who participate in social networks as belonging to the cyberspace community.Using their participation to elicit public opinion and trends which further guide government decisions.Soft power – next slidehttp://smallwarsjournal.com/blog/2009/01/the-soft-side-of-airpower/
  • Let’s talk about what is hard power first. (The next few slides are from an article by Joseph S. Nye Jr. (former Dean, Harvard school of government) in the publication “Compass: A journal of leadership” published by the center for public leadership, Harvard University)Power – influence the behaviors of others to get the outcomes one wantsWe can affect behavior of others byCarrots – inducing them with paymentsSticks – coercing them with threats
  • Attraction here is usually done through intangible assets – attractive personality (or friendly disposition in the case of a government), political values and policies that are seen as legitimate or having moral authority.Limitations of soft power – difficult to wield and takes a lot of time to see the effects. Also, hard to quantify the effects.But nevertheless useful – hard power alone can fail completely (Hitler, Saddam Hussain)
  • Transition to the next slide – This is all great, but in general how do we use soft power and measure its effects?
  • Monitoring soft power effects and leveraging citizen sensing through social network analysis and visualization
  • Twitris’ features – and the CS research we use/leverage
  • Twitris’ features – and the CS research we use/leverage
  • The ones marked in red all formally defined in Srini’s work.Interactive interrogation – ability to interactively select and zoom down to clusters, entities of interest, as well as specific dynamic interactions and events that govern evolution of networks over time.
  • The ones marked red in the second bullet are indices formally defined.Observe that events and behavioral measures are sometimes associated with clusters and sometimes with nodesStability – measures the tendency of a node to interact with the same nodes over a period of time.Sociability – measure of the number of a different interactions that a node participates inInfluence of node – indicates how other nodes behave when this node joins or leaves a cluster (do other leave when this node leaves/ do a lot of nodes join the cluster that this node joins)Popularity - of a cluster measures how many nodes does it attract
  • Various views are useful for different tasks. We can track a person’s activities in the network (node view),or zoom in on a community where a number of critical events have taken place (community view), orPick a particular event and get info on it across various clusters.DoD = details on demand
  • Muri paper, Ramesh’s figure.
  • Transcript

    • 1. “…challenge accepted paradigms to propose new ways of fighting from air, space, and cyberspace.”
      - General Stephen Lorenz
    • 2. General Stanley McChrystal
      “It’s not the number of people you kill,
      it’s the number of people you convince.”
    • 3. Enhancing Soft Power (ESP)
      Analysis and Situational Awareness over network of
      Computers, Sensors, People, and Content
      for enhancing Soft Power
      AmitSheth, LexisNexis Eminent Scholar
      Director, Ohio Center of Excellence on Knowledge-enabled Computing (Kno.e.sis)
      Wright State University
      http://knoesis.org
    • 4. Network Visualization
      Consider all challenges that can be addressed by visualization in the cyberspace
      Cyberspace = {computers, sensors, people, conversations}
      For issues effecting security in cyberspace and to enhancing military’s capacity to project soft power
      So broadly, People-Content-Network Visualization
    • 5. Institutions Involved
      Ohio Center of Excellence on Knowledge-enabled Human Centered Computing (Kno.e.sis), UCI (Ramesh Jain), OSU Faculty in Visual Analytics [Srini Parthasarthy]
      WSU Faculty in Internet/WWW, Semantic Web, Sensor Web, Social Computing, Network Security [Bin Wang] , Visualization [Tom Wischgoll], and Cognitive Science [John Flach,…]
      Optionally, faculty at Indiana University Center for Complex Networks & Systems, and Purdue University
      Preliminary thoughts on COE on Enhancing Soft Power (ESP)
    • 6. Networks in Cyberspace
      Networks in Cyber Space
      Sensor Networks
      Computer Networks
      Social Networks
    • 7. Networks and Cyber Security
      Networks in Cyber Space
      Cyber Security
      Sensor Networks
      Computer Networks
      Social Networks
    • 8. Networks and Soft Power
      Networks in Cyber Space
      Computer Networks
      Sensor Networks
      Soft Power
      Citizen Sensing
      Social Networks
    • 9. Hard Power – “Carrots and Sticks”
    • 10. Soft Power: “The Second Face of Power”
      “Affect behavior through attraction”
      “Soft power is attractive power”
      Also called cooptive power:
      the ability to shape the preferences of others
      getting others to want the outcomes that we want
    • 11. How important is soft power?
      Henry Crumpton– CIA covert-op leader
      Hard power – 25%
      Soft power – 75%
      Wield soft power (to counter terror groups in Iraq and Afghanistan) through
      Empowerment of native people
      Developmental and educational projects
      Measure impact of
      policy alternatives
      development initiatives
    • 12. Using soft power and monitoring its effects
      One approach – Analyze online social networks
      Ohio State
      Knucomp
      Visualize the interaction graphs formed in social networks
      (more later)
      Aggregate social perceptions
      Analyze with a focus theme
      Use spatio-temporal aspects
      Twitris
      How hard is this?
    • 13. Twitris: Architecture
    • 14. Twitris: Features and Research Issues
      Data intensive
      Processing and storage of data Vs meta data
      Timeliness
      Live resource aggregation
      Near real time
      Tunable spatio-temporal scope/weights
      Global Iran election Vs. Local health care debate
      Parallel programming,
      cloud computing (map-reduce)
      Information retrieval,
      natural language processing (harder with casual text), machine learning
      Semantic Web technologies,
      Web 2.0 tools
    • 15. Twitris: Ongoing investigations
      For a given viral “tweet” study
      network of people who reply or re-tweet
      do this across space and theme
      variation of content
      HCR – Health care reform, IE – Iran election, ISWC – Intl. Semantic Web conference
    • 16. Sparse and Dense ReTweet Graphs - Call for action vs. Information Sharing tweets
      Showing retweet (forward chains) of a viral tweet in the HealthCare Debate data
      “Join @MarkUdall @RitterForCO and @BennetForCO to support an up-or-down vote on the public option http://tr.im/Cm2u”
    • 17. Sparse and Dense ReTweet Graphs - Call for action vs. Information Sharing tweets
      Showing retweet (forward chains) of a viral tweet in the Iran data
      “Iran Election Crisis: 10 Incredible YouTube Videos http://bit.ly/vPDLo”
      Both network and content are important in studying social dynamics (here, information diffusion)
    • 18. Analysis of Conversation and Chatter
      Use language constructs to analyze sentiments and intentions
    • 19. Visual Analytics for Dynamic Interaction Networks
      Model social networks as graphs
      • People are nodes
      • 20. Their interactions are edges
      • 21. Groups of connected people are communities (clusters)
      • 22. Edge weights capture relative importance
      • 23. Addition and deletion of edges and nodes represent changes in the network
      Challenges
      • Identify and localize changing portions of the network
      • 24. Characterize the types of changes and potential causes
      • 25. Facilitate interactive interrogation
    • Events and Behaviors in Interaction Networks
      Critical Events from a snapshot to the next
      A cluster stays intact
      Two clusters merge or a cluster splits
      A new cluster forms or an existing one dissolves
      A node joins or leaves a cluster
      Behavioral measures (modeled as real numbers)
      Stability and Sociability of a node
      Influence of node on other nodes
      Popularity of a cluster
    • 26. Paradigm: Overview, Zoom, Filter, and DoD
      Event detection proceeds iteratively:
      Events are computed from time Ti to time Ti+1
      Clusters at time Ti compared with those at Ti+1
      Use only nodes that are active at either time which leads to significant time savings.
      Views (map normalized measures -> colors)
      Coarsening using multilevel hierarchies of nodes
      Graph view, community view, event view, and node view
    • 27. Network Visualizer Architecture
    • 28. Coarse View of a Wikipedia Subgraph
    • 29. Zoom and Filter Snapshot
    • 30. Event View: Importance of Ranking
    • 31. Semantic Annotations for any resource in cyberspace (message, text, images, and AV)
      • Annotate resources with meaningful metadata
      • 32. Use the metadata to process and elicit information from a given set of resources
    • Automatic Semantic Annotation
      Value-added Semagix Semantic Tagging
      COMTEX Tagging
      Content
      ‘Enhancement’
      Rich Semantic
      Metatagging
      Limited tagging
      (mostly syntactic)
      Value-added
      relevant metatags
      added by Semagix
      to existing
      COMTEX tags:
      © Semagix, Inc.
    • 39. Annotating Sensor Data
    • 40. “NSF Playoff”
      Embedding Metadata in
      multimedia, a/v or sensor data
      Video
      Enhanced
      Digital Cable
      MPEG-2/4/7
      
      GREAT
      USER
      EXPERIENCE
      MPEG
      Encoder
      MPEG
      Decoder
      Retrieve Scene Description Track
      Create Scene Description Tree
      License metadata decoder and
      semantic applications to
      device makers
      Channel sales
      through Video Server Vendors, Video App Servers, and Broadcasters
      Node = AVO Object
      Scene
      Description
      Tree
      Enhanced
      XML
      Description
      • Produced by: Fox Sports  
      • 41. Creation Date: 12/05/2000
      • 42. League: NFL
      • 43. Teams: Seattle Seahawks,
      • 44. Atlanta Falcons
      • 45. Players: John Kitna
      • 46. Coaches: Mike Holmgren,
      • 47. Dan Reeves
      • 48. Location: Atlanta
      Voqutte/Taalee
      Semantic
      Engine
      “NSF Playoff”
      Node
      Metadata-rich
      Value-added Node
      Object Content Information (OCI)
    • 49. Semantic Annotations for Event Visualization
      • Knoesis’ prior work on Semantic Event Tracking
      • 50. Extract event information from Internet resources
      • 51. Visualize event data through space, time, and theme
      SET
    • 52. Way Ahead: Semantic Annotations for Networks
      • “Richer” communication paradigm
      • 53. Liberates parties from needing to know exact IP addresses
      • 54. Routing based on Semantic Concepts
      • 55. Improved efficiency
      • 56. Single or very few traversals of network stack
      • 57. Content is routed by the physical network based on the Semantics
      • 58. Enhanced security and control
      • 59. Control based on message content in addition to origin (or destination)
      • 60. Better accountability and audit: after identifying hacking, how did Google know Chinese & Tibetan human rights advocates were targeted? Or what could attackers be after? What could they have learned?
    • Semantics Aware Networking
    • 61. Way Ahead: Content Analysis to Identify Radicalization or Recruiting
      Collaborate with linguists, social scientists, and other computer scientists to analayze social network content (Twitter, Facebook, MySpace) to weed out radical elements.
      Alleged Fort Hood Shooter’s online post 6 months before the massacre
      “If one suicide bomber can kill 100 enemy soldiers because they were caught off guard that would be considered a strategic victory”
      - Maj. NidalMalikHasan
    • 62. Way Ahead: Use and Detect misuse of Soft Power
      Web sites in China are required to employ people who monitor and delete objectionable content; tens of thousands of others are paid to “guide” bulletin board Web exchanges in the government’s favor.
      Use social network analysis to sense sentiments
      Iranian reaction to Hilary Clinton’s statements on the election.
      Impact of giving (partial) control to Pakistan to operate drones in the area
    • 63. Significant Infrastructure
      Whole-Body Laser
      Range Scanner
      VERITAS
      stereoscopic 3D
      visualization
      AVL
      NMR

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