Statue 4500 years old Menkaura and wife, Khamerernebty In Boston museum
Treaty of Ryswick—France, Britain, Holland and independent businessmen (pirates) fighting over the Caribbean and the sugar plantations, cocoa etc.
By the 1780s, Saint-Domingue produced about 40 percent of all the sugar and 60 percent of all the coffee consumed in Europe. This single colony, roughly the size of Maryland or Belgium, produced more sugar and coffee than all of Britain's West Indian colonies combined.
A third of the entire trade in African people were brought to Haiti!
From Henri Christophe’s personal secretary in 18 th century Haiti. Christophe was one of the first elected presidents of liberated Haiti.
In a system that makes human beings its most lucrative commodity there is no regard for the environment
Capitalism is built on slavery and genocide
FOR A REASON: JOBS, PROPERTY FOR WHITE PEOPLE
All citizens known as “black”—most white slave and plantation owners were driven out. This got rid of colonial class designations such as “white, Mestizo, Mulatto,” etc. White people who accepted African leadership were allowed to stay, for example there were Polish exiles escaping oppression there who had come to Haiti and fought on the side of the Africans—they were allowed to stay. Freedom of religion: Imperialism continues to demonize and criminalize the African religion in Haiti known as “Voudou”
Check out the expression on the seated woman’s face!
“ Luwezi: You’ve got all of Mozambique in jail”
US has most child prisons in world and 100 people on death row for something they did as a child.
Black Voices: Dr. Boyce: How Companies Make Money off Prisoners, July 28, 2009 Vicky Pelaez March 10, 2008, The prison industry in the US: new form of slavery, Global Research
Every American falls within the top 13 percent of global income (MSH)
Europe was poor, oppressed in middle ages: feudalism, plague
In the 1400s Europe launched an assault on the rest of the world
In the late 1400s Cristobal Colon asked Queen Isabella of Spain for money to sail to India
Queen Isabella had to hock her jewels to pay for Columbus’ voyage
1492: Columbus landed on a Caribbean island inhabited the Taino people The Taino called their home Ayiti, “Land of Mountains”
When Columbus arrived the Tainos welcomed him and helped his men survive
Columbus immediately began genocide: raping, torturing, slaughtering the Taino people
<ul><li>“ The Spaniards entered the large house nearby…and with cuts and stabs began to kill as many as they found there, so that a stream of blood was running, as if a great number of cows had perished…To see the wounds which covered the bodies of the dead and dying was a spectacle of horror and dread.” </li></ul>According to the Spanish colonial priest Bernardo de Las Casas:
Within 40 years the entire Taino population was wiped out
Columbus re-named Ayiti “Hispaniola” “ Little Spain”
In 1695 Spain ceded the Western third of the island to France France renamed it Saint-Dominque and grew cotton, indigo, tobacco and cocoa on huge plantations
In the 1780s Haiti grew •40% of all sugar •60% of all coffee consumed in Europe Haiti was called the “ Pearl of the Antilles” Producing the most wealth of all French colonies
France achieved this colonial wealth by enslaving millions of African people who were worked to death within 7 years!
This stolen wealth transformed France from poverty to a wealthy imperial power
<ul><li>Under the most brutal conditions imaginable! </li></ul>By the late 1700s more than 50,000 Africans were brought to Haiti every year
At the end of the 18th century there were up to 800,000 enslaved Africans in Haiti And only 32,000 French
A description of French torture of Africans in Haiti <ul><li>"Have they not hung up men with heads downward, drowned them in sacks, crucified them on planks, buried them alive, crushed them in mortars? </li></ul><ul><li>“… forced them to eat excrement? </li></ul><ul><li>“… thrown them into boiling cauldrons of cane syrup? </li></ul><ul><li>“… put men and women inside barrels studded with spikes and rolled them down mountainsides? </li></ul><ul><li>“… consigned them to man-eating dogs?” </li></ul>
This same process of slavery and genocide took place in the U.S., throughout the Caribbean and South America
Same process of genocide against Indigenous people: Wounded Knee
African people became Europe’s most lucrative commodity
Slavery, genocide built capitalism: The dollar sign was a symbol for slave shackles
The “founding fathers” were slave owners, agents of genocide
Africans auctioned throughout U.S. created billions of dollars of wealth And spawned thousands of spin off businesses for white America
Slave economy, land theft gave opportunities for millions European immigrants
White workers sided with own ruling class waging terror against African people
In Haiti Rebellions of African people grew against brutal conditions
Africans organized and armed themselves for freedom <ul><li>Thousands of Maroons liberated territory in Haiti’s mountains and made raids on plantations </li></ul>
Liberté Egalité Fraternité Inspired by the demands of the French Revolution, Africans launched the first rebellion of the Haitian Revolution in 1791
In 1798 formerly enslaved Toussaint L’ouverture led an African army that defeated the British invasion
Toussaint L’ouverture became the ruler of the entire island and abolished slavery… but he did not declare independence from France
In 1802 Napoleon sent 30,000 of his best troops to try to reclaim Haiti
Napoleon then sent in his brutal generals Rochambeau and Leclerc <ul><li>Rochambeau wrote to Napoleon that to reclaim Haiti, France must “declare the negroes slaves and destroy at least 30,000” African men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>He burned alive, hanged, drowned and tortured black prisoners, reviving such practices as burying Africans in piles of insects and boiling them in cauldrons of molasses. </li></ul>
The people rose up: determined never to be re-enslaved
Toussaint and his people’s army fought brilliantly—but he surrendered to the French!
The French brutally arrested Toussaint and kidnapped him to France L’ouverture died of pneumonia, in brutal, freezing conditions in a French mountain prison
Jean Jacques Dessalines, Louverture’s chief lieutenant, then led the Africans against the French
Dessalines always believed in nothing short of total independence for Africans in Haiti
Haiti became Napoleon’s “Vietnam” Under Dessalines, Africans waged a brilliant people’s war against the French
26,000 French troops were killed by the African revolutionaries or died of yellow fever
Dessalines ordered each act of French terror to be repaid in kind <ul><li>After one battle Rochambeau buried 500 Africans alive. </li></ul><ul><li>Dessalines responded by hanging 500 French prisoners. </li></ul>
The African liberation army of Haiti included women soldiers
Dessalines and the Africans defeated the French army, declaring independence on Jan. 1, 1804
The Africans renamed the country Haiti in solidarity with the Indigenous people
Principles of Independent Haiti’s constitution <ul><li>Africans and others escaping oppression anywhere in the world would be accepted in Haiti </li></ul><ul><li>All citizens would be known as “black” </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of religion </li></ul><ul><li>No white person could own land in Haiti </li></ul>
The Haiti Revolution inspired Denmark Vesey and other slave rebellions
Haiti’s revolution inspired Vicente Guerrero in Mexico, Simon Bolivar in Venezuela
In 1825, Haiti was forced by the US, Britain, France to pay France 90 million gold francs for “stolen property.” The “property” was African people themselves and land stolen by genocide ! <ul><li>That’s $90 billion in today’s gold prices! </li></ul><ul><li>Haiti was forced to continue these payments until 1947—122 years! </li></ul>
Haiti’s “reparations” supported France for more than a hundred years, impoverishing Haiti
From 1824-1826 Independent Haiti accepted 13,000 Africans escaping terror in the U.S.
<ul><li>The U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Occupied with marines </li></ul><ul><li>Killed the people’s leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Set up neocolonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Looted Haiti’s treasury </li></ul><ul><li>Rewrote Haiti’s constitution ending the prohibition on white landownership. </li></ul>From 1915-1934 the U.S. occupied Haiti very brutally in the face of on-going people’s resistance
This is why Haiti is the most impoverished country in the western hemisphere!
Resistance of African people in Haiti against foreign domination has been constant
1950s: the U.S. set up and backed the murderous neocolonial leader, François “Papa Doc” Duvalier, seen here with Nelson Rockefeller
Duvalier established the paramilitary death squads, the Tonton Macutes, hated by the people
Despite the repression, on-going African resistance ousted Baby Doc and the brutal Duvalier regime in 1986 Papa Doc was succeeded by his son Jean-Claude “Baby Doc”
In 1990 popular leader Jean-Bertrand Aristide won 67% of the vote for president
Aristide was overthrown by a U.S. backed coup in 1991
IMF “Structural Adjustment Program” policies under Clinton deepened the poverty and destroyed Haiti’s rice industry
Aristide was “allowed” to return to Haiti in 1994– accompanied by UN troops. Aristide was again elected in 2000—this time with 90% of vote.
US and IMF policies continue to deepen the poverty: Africans in Haiti are forced to subsist on mud pies
The people of Haiti again rose up in early 2004
In February, 2004, 200 years after the victory of Haiti’s independence, Aristide was kidnapped by the U.S. and sent to Africa!
UN troops were again sent in to brutally repress the people and their resistance!
U.S. corporate sweat shops use slave-labor in Haiti
Corporations such as: <ul><li>Walt Disney: Mickey Mouse t-shirts, pajamas </li></ul><ul><li>Rawlings baseball equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Nikes, Levis and many more </li></ul>
This is the background for the earthquake of Jan. 12, 2010
For years Africans have been fleeing to the U.S. to escape terror and poverty—at the risk of their lives!
Those who survive the trip are put into U.S. immigration detention camps!
The earthquake “relief” is an intensification of U.S. colonial occupation of Haiti—16,000 US Marines & 14,000 other military forces
<ul><li>42 cents for disaster assistance </li></ul><ul><li>33 cents for military </li></ul><ul><li>9 cents for food </li></ul><ul><li>5 cents for Haitian survivors recovery efforts </li></ul><ul><li>1 cent to the government of Haiti </li></ul><ul><li>½ cent to Dominican Republic </li></ul><ul><li>(Associated Press, Jan. 27, 2010) </li></ul>Here’s how each dollar of earthquake donations breaks down:
U.S., Europe built on enslavement, genocide, colonialism
African people live under colonialism inside U.S. New Orleans - Haiti
African and colonized peoples imprisoned by the millions
Spawning a trillion dollar blood prison industry
African children in prison in the U.S. Largest child prison population in entire world.
Blood prisons: gold rush at expense of African people <ul><li>Prison pay phones make $15,000/day </li></ul><ul><li>93% of paints and paintbrushes </li></ul><ul><li>92% of stove assembly </li></ul><ul><li>36% of home appliances </li></ul><ul><li>30% of headphones, microphones, speakers </li></ul><ul><li>21% of office furniture </li></ul><ul><li>MADE BY PRISON SLAVE LABOR </li></ul>
Today Indigenous people impoverished on reservations! With life expectancy in 40s !
Indigenous people terrorized on their own stolen land
All white people sit on pedestal of slavery, genocide
On a pedestal of slavery, genocide: White America enjoys 50% of entire world’s resources
This is why the only solution is the vision of the African People’s Socialist Party <ul><li>One Africa! One Nation! </li></ul><ul><li>Wherever they are located around the world, Africans are one people! </li></ul><ul><li>The total liberation of Africa and African people everywhere under the leadership of the African working class! </li></ul>