Motivational & Affective Aspects in Technology Enhanced Learning: Topics, Results, and Research Route
Affective Aspects in
Technology Enhanced Learning:
and Research Route
Christine Kunzmann, Lars Müller,
Verónica Rivera Pelayo, Andreas Schmidt
Motivation is key for knowledge work
“Knowledge workers are those people who
have taken responsibility for their work lives.
They continually strive to understand the
world around them and modify their work
practices and behaviors to better meet their
personal and organizational objectives. No
one tells them what to do. They do not take
No for an answer. They are self motivated.”
And emotions, too.
Although often not acknowledged
Research has been fragmented.
Knowledge Management CSCW
Each with different ideas of
man, research methodologies, …
Motivation has many facets
motivate individuals to share knowledge?
motivate to use tools (like we designed them)?
motivate to learn?
motivate to adapt to new developments?
Motivation to learn
What moves or hinders learners to learn
relationship of motivation and goals
• "implicit" (interest, challenge-based)
• "explicit" motivation (goal-oriented, which can be "assessed"),
These can conflict
• explicit goals can stifle implicit interest.
• The challenge lies in balancing these two aspects.
Setting goals, monitoring progress, and self-reflection
promote motivation (Holocher-Ertl et al. 2011)
Motivation to share
et al 2010)
Social dilemma &
reasons for free-riding
Role of self-
(Schwaemmle et al. 2010)
studies in the context
Kunzmann & Schmidt 2009
Motivation to use a specific tool
Is not specific to TEL, but embedded in a broader
research stream on user acceptance and satisfaction
Many concepts and approaches, ranging from usability,
joy of use to user experience
Popular approach: gamification
• Using game mechanisms, e.g., leaderboards, scores
(Parra et al. 2012)
First prototypes and studies
Common understanding of the role of
Broad base of theory from psychology
Complicated and difficult to apply in a design process
Circumplex Model of Affect by Russell & Krathwohl’s model
Affective Aspects in TEL: Purposes & Goal
Specific approaches to apply technology in a learning
Raising awareness, reflection
Influence and regulate emotions
Affective Aspects in TEL: Challenges
Lack of a common language
Multiple visualizations and representations
No universal preference to express and communicate emotions
Dependent on the current personal context
Affective Aspects in TEL: Barriers and concerns
Not seek to replace human perception,
but rather to augment it.
(Voigt et al., 2011)
• Oversimplifying assumptions
• Assumption of uniformity
• Idealistic assumptions about cognitive and
affective support in communities
Conclusions: Affective & motivational aspects
• low level of abstraction, close to observation
• Short-lived and quick to change
• Effects on learning very complex
differences between short-term and long-term effects
• Emerging research area with incoherent streams
• Higher level of abstraction
• More stable and more easily to be linked to learning processes
• Research area higher level of maturity
Conclusions: Relationship of affective and
The relationship between emotions and learning outcome
(and work performance) is not an easy one – negative
emotions can increase the learning and work performance.
The relationship between emotions and motivation is
likewise not an easy one.
The role of emotions (and motivation) increases in informal
learning contexts compared to formal context as in formal
context “having to do sth.” overcomes temporary emotional
and motivational aspects.