American Humor


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American Humor

  1. 1. American Humor
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Themes, types of humor, sources </li></ul><ul><li>Development of humor in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Cartoons, magazines and animation </li></ul><ul><li>Theater and vaudeville </li></ul><ul><li>Radio and recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Film </li></ul><ul><li>Television: Sitcoms </li></ul>
  3. 4. Hum o r is … <ul><li>that qu a lity which appeals to a sense of the ludicrous or absurdly incongruous </li></ul><ul><li>the m e ntal faculty of discovering, expressing, or appreciating the ludicr o us or absurdly incongruous </li></ul><ul><li>something that is or is design e d to be c o mical or amusing </li></ul><ul><li>(Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary) </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>American humor refers </li></ul><ul><li>collectively to the conventions </li></ul><ul><li>and common threads </li></ul><ul><li>that tie together humor in the </li></ul><ul><li>United States . </li></ul><ul><li>It is often defined in </li></ul><ul><li>comparison to the humor of </li></ul><ul><li>another country - for example, </li></ul><ul><li>how it is different from </li></ul><ul><li>British humor or Canadian humor . It is, however , difficult to say what makes a particular type or subject of humor particularly American. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Themes <ul><li>One leading analysis of American humor, the 1931 book by Constance Rourke , identified the character of the ‘Yankee’ as that first American comic figure, the first widely accepted American character that the nation could find funny , make fun of and even export for the amusement of the world - a gangly traveler who told stories, played elaborate practical jokes , was ingenuous , sly, perhaps uneducated . She reports that American comedy sprang forth after the American Revolution , when the country was &quot; freed from the worry of self preservation &quot; and its citizens began to regard themselves as &quot;works of art&quot;. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Types of humor <ul><li>Slapstick and physical comedy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less emphasis on understatement, and so the humor tends to be more open ; rather than satirizing the social system through exaggeration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preference for observational techniques ( it seeks to point out the aspects of American culture and social discourse which are obvious while at the same time highlighting their ridiculousness ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Sources <ul><li>The United States has many diverse groups from which to draw on for humorous material . The strongest </li></ul><ul><li> of these influences , during the 20th </li></ul><ul><li>century at least , has been the influx of </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish comedians and their corresponding </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish humor , including some of the most influential: </li></ul><ul><li>The Three Stooges , The Marx Brothers , </li></ul><ul><li>Rodney Dangerfield , Jackie Mason , Woody Allen , Mel Brooks , Larry David , Jerry Seinfeld , Jon Stewart , and Lewis Black , just to name a few. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Development of humor in the US <ul><li>Humor began to emerge in the United States soon after the American Revolution in written and spoken form, and delivery methods have continued to evolve since then. This article is not strictly chronological in nature. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature appears before cartoons although newspaper cartoons in the modern sense began in the 1840s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio and film came out roughly at the same time . Film is covered after radio because it led more directly to the television section . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stand-up comedy began to receive renewed attention in the 1970s which is the reason why it was placed directly after television. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Literature <ul><li>A candidate for the 'founding father' of American humor is Mark Twain . It should be stated that humorists existed in the United States before Twain, for example Augustus Baldwin Longstreet collection of Southern humor came out when Twain was 5 years old, but Twain is seen as a founding figure in creating an &quot;American voice &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>to humor. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Ambrose Bierce is a nother famous American humorist of the 19 th century . </li></ul><ul><li>His most famous work is the cynical Devil’s Dictionary . </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Popular humorists who spanned the late 1800s and early 1900s included Samuel Minturn Peck (1854-1938), who wrote My Sweetheart , and Hayden Carruth (1862-1932), who wrote Uncle Bentley and the Roosters . Early twentieth -century American humorists included members of the Algonquin Round Table (named for the Algonquin Hotel ), such as Dorothy Parker , SJ Perelman and Robert Benchley . In more recent times popular writers of American humor include </li></ul><ul><li>P. J. O'Rourke , Louis (L) Harding , Erm a Bombeck , and Dave Barry . </li></ul>
  12. 14. Cartoons, magazines and animation <ul><li>A merican cartoons and comics have commented , humorously or scathingly , on American life </li></ul><ul><li>since Thomas Nast or earlier . </li></ul><ul><li>Humorous print cartoonists </li></ul><ul><li>of note include Charles Schulz , Scott </li></ul><ul><li>Adams , Jim Davis , Gary Larson , Walt Kelly , </li></ul><ul><li>Johnny Hart , Bill Watterson , </li></ul><ul><li>and others. </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>U.S. humor magazines of note include Mad , Humbug , Trump and Help! , as well as the National Lampoon , and Spy magazine. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Nati o nal Lamp o on began in 1970 as an offshoot of the Harvard Lampoon . </li></ul><ul><li>The magazine regularly skewered p o p culture , </li></ul><ul><li>the c o unterculture and p o litics. </li></ul><ul><li>The magaz i ne was at its height in the 1970s , </li></ul><ul><li>and its influence spread to films </li></ul><ul><li>and c o medy programs . </li></ul><ul><li>In the mid 1970s , some of the </li></ul><ul><li>magazine's c o ntributors left </li></ul><ul><li>to join the NBC comedy show </li></ul><ul><li>Saturday N i ght Live (SNL). </li></ul><ul><li>The magazine st o pped publication </li></ul><ul><li>in 1998 , but films and other pr o grams </li></ul><ul><li>attributed to &quot;Nati o nal Lampoon&quot; c o ntinue . </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>I n the 20 th century film allowed for </li></ul><ul><li>animated cartoons </li></ul><ul><li>of a humorous nature. </li></ul><ul><li>The most notable of these perhaps being </li></ul><ul><li>Looney Tunes </li></ul><ul><li>and Tom and Jerry . </li></ul><ul><li>What's Opera, Doc? , Duck Amuck , </li></ul><ul><li>and One Froggy Evening </li></ul><ul><li>garnered critical enough appeal </li></ul><ul><li>to be inducted into the </li></ul><ul><li>National Film Registry. </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Warner Brothers' cartoons often dealt with themes beyond US culture or society, but did involve a great deal of commentary on American life. Although many of the American winners of the Academy Award for Animat ed Short Film are not exampl es of American humor , a significant percentage would qualify as such . On television, noteworthy American cartoons include The Flintstones , The Simpsons , Futurama , Beavis and Butthead , King of the Hill , Ren and Stimpy , Family Guy , Spongebob Squarepants , American Dad and South Park . </li></ul>
  17. 19. Cartoons, magazines and animation
  18. 20. Theater and vaudeville <ul><li>A popular form of theater during the 19th century was the mins trelsy show. These shows featured white actors dressed in blackface and playing up racial stereotypes. </li></ul><ul><li>A Meeting of the Limekiln Club Minstrel Recording </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Burles que became a popular form of ente rtainment in the middle of the 19th century. Originally a form of farce in which females in male roles mocked the politics and c ulture of the day , burlesque was conde mned by opinion makers for its sexu ality and outspokenness . The form was h ounded off the &quot;legitimate stage &quot; and found itself relegated to saloons and barrooms , and its content mostly raunchy jokes . </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>Vaudeville is a style of variety entertainment predominant in America in the lat e 19th Century and early 20th Century. Developing from many sources including shows in saloons , minstrelsy , British pantomimes , and other popular entertainm ents, vaudeville became one of the mos t popular types of entertainment in Americ a. Part of this entertainment was usually one or more </li></ul><ul><li>comedians . </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Vaudeville provided generations of American entertainers including George M. Cohan , George Burns and Gracie Allen , Mae West, Fanny Brice , and W.C. Fields , among others. Vaudeville grew less popular as movies replaced live entertainment, but vaudeville performers were able to move into those other fields. Former vaudeville performers who were successful in film, radio and television include: Buster Keaton , Marx Brothers, Edgar Bergen , Three Stooges , and Abbott & Costello . </li></ul>
  22. 24. Radio and recorded <ul><li>Early radio shows include what is labeled as the first situation comedy, Sam and Henry , which debuted on WGN radio in 1926 . It was partially inspired by Sidney Smith's popular comic strip The Gumps . </li></ul>
  23. 25. The show was successful enough that in 1930 a film was made with the characters and in 1951 it became a television sitcom . The film starred the white actors in blackface . The television show starred African American actors . <ul><li>Amos & Andy began as one of the first radio comedy serials which debuted on CBS in 1928 . This was a show written and performed by white actors about black farmhands moving to the big city . </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>Radio in its early years was a showcase for comedy stars from the vaudeville circuit. Jack Benny being among the early comedy stars in this medium. When Jack moved to television in the 1950s , his time slot was filled by Stan Freberg a voice actor , and comedian. Stan began in 1950 to produce records of his comedy routines which involved parodies of popular tunes and spoofs of modern entertainment personalities and on political topics . He was also on radio from 1954-1957 . </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Bob Elliott and Ray Goulding were an American comedy team who began in radio in 1946 with a daily 15-minute show titled Matinee With Bob and Ray . Their format was typically to satirize the medium in which they were performing, such as conducting interviews , with off-the-wall dialogue presented in a generally deadpan style as though it were a serious interview. They continued on the air for over four decades on radio and television, ending in 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>In more recent times the medium fell out of favor as a source of humor with Garrison Keillor being perhaps a rare modern example. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Film <ul><li>The very first movie to be produced was Thomas Edison's kinetoscope of his assistant Fred Ott in Record of a Sneeze. This could also be considered the first to show a comedic element . </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>During the era of silent films in the 1920s, comedic films began to appear in significant numbers. These were mainly focused on visual humor, including slapstick and burlesque. In America, prominent clown-style actors of the silent era include Charlie Chaplin (although he was born in England), Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd . Oliver Hardy (of Laurel and Hardy) (Stan Laurel being British), Fatty Arbuckle , the Marx Brothers and other names were significant in the first decades of American cinema humor. </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>Many early film directors in the US were born elsewhere. This is true of one of the most noted early comedy directors in Hollywood, Billy Wilder . That said, American born directors like Howard Hawks , Preston Sturges and George Cukor also were major film c ome dy directors in the 1940s. </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>In the 1960s to 1970s Woody Allen and Mel Brooks gained note becoming two of the most appreciated of American film comedy directors. </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>In the 1980s Christopher Guest , Carl Reiner , and the Coen brothers emerged as significant directors or writers in American film comedy . Added to this several &quot;brother duos &quot; have been of significance in American film like The Zucker brothers , the Coen brothers, and The Farrelly brothers. </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>In the last ten years Kevin Smith , Jay Roach , Tom Shadyac , and Alexander Payne have garnered notice as film directors whose work is often humorous ; if at times darkly so in the case of Payne. Some of the aforementioned directors, particularly Woody Allen and the Coen brothers, also do other genres of film besides comedy. </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>The situation comedy ( sitcom ) is a format that first developed in radio and later became the primary form of comedy on television . The first sitcom to be number one in US ratings overall was I Love Lucy . </li></ul>Television: Sitcoms
  33. 35. <ul><li>In the decades since, several sitcoms have been tops in the ratings. In the 1960s The Beverly Hillbillies and The Andy Griffith Show show held that distinction. Both of these programs were based on the country bumpkin - the Clampetts bringing their hillbilly ways to Beverly Hills, and the slow talking sheriff in the small rural town. In the 1970s All in the Family was the top rated show while dealing with serious issues it was based on the loudmouth bigot usually getting his come-uppance. </li></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li>The most successful sitcoms of the 1980s were Roseanne and Cheers . Roseanne was a family sitcom, based on loud and large blue-collar parents. Cheers on the other hand was about a neighborhood bar frequented by a mix of working-class and professional drinkers . </li></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><li>In the 1990s the increasing popularity of cable changed the popularity of the sitcom. Cable provided more viewing options and made it more difficult for any one show to dominate in the manner that The Cosby Show or Cheers did in their eras. That said, Seinfeld and Friends managed to be among the most-watched shows of the decade. The 2000s has seen a further erosion in the sitcom with Friends being the only one to be the top watched show in any year of this decade, thus far, and the cancellation of the Emmy winning Arrested Development . Arrested Development had been one of the few critically successful comedies to have started in the 2000s, but recent comedies like The Office , 30 Rock and My Name Is Earl have garnered some praise . </li></ul>
  36. 38. … for your attention!