Feminizat ion of PovertyBrenda ClemensColleen CurranKristen GeisingerApril Treible
Objectives: Teen Pregnancy ◦ Understand the prevalence of teen pregnancy in the U.S. ◦ Understand the risk factors for teenage pregnancy ◦ Understand risks factors to the child of a teen parent
Objectives, cont‟ Women‟s Healthcare ◦ Define poverty and its effects on women ◦ Link the impact poverty has on nutrition ◦ Compare symptoms of men and women during a heart attack
Objectives, cont‟ Economics of Divorce ◦ Understand the prevalence of divorce in the U.S. ◦ Understand the challenges of divorce from an economic standpoint ◦ Understand the options health care providers can provide
Objectives, cont‟ Maternal Mortality ◦ Learn how maternal mortality is determined and defined. ◦ Learn its correlation to impoverished nations and the reasons why ◦ Identify nursing interventions to decrease mortality
STATISTICS Approximately 820,000 teens become pregnant each year ◦ 78% are unplanned (Davidson, London, & Ladewig, 2008) 17-35% will become pregnant again within 1st year (Thurman, Hammond, Brown, & Roddy, 2007)
Risk Factors for TeenPregnancy Poverty Cultural factors Low education Lack of goals High risk behaviors Family dysfunction Poor self esteem (Davidson, London, & Ladewig, 2008)
Negative Outcomes ofTeen Pregnancy Decrease in likeliness of finishing high school Increased risk of using welfare Increased risk for premature infants (Davidson, London, & Ladewig, 2008)
POTENTIAL OUTCOMESFor children of TeenParents Increased risk for mental retardation Poverty Low birth weight Poor school performance Abuse and neglect (Davidson, London, & Ladewig, 2008)
Problem A significant cause of poverty for women and children. Many couples are getting divorced. Mothers have to depend on themselves and their skills to take care of their families.
STATISTICS “Almost one out of every two marriages ends in divorce.” “About one half of divorced women receive the full amount of promised child support payments” (Davidson, London, & Ladewig, 2008).
STATISTICS, CONT. “7.3 million divorced women are under the age of 65 in the United States. Forty-two percent had incomes below the poverty level and sixteen percent were „near poor‟.” (Locke, & Gibbons, 2008).
STATISTICS, CONT. “Married women with a median income of $53,200 find a decrease in income to $21,000 once a divorce has taken place” (Locke, & Gibbons, 2008).
Family Types Two parents work Father works, mother is a stay home mom Mother works, father stays at home
Income Challenges afterDivorce Family with 2 parents working: ◦ Take on longer hours ◦ Second job ◦ Child support if applicable Stay at home mom: ◦ Find reliable job ◦ Dependant on child support
SEARCHING FOR WORK Search for quality jobs: ◦ Workforce is strict ◦ Best of the best Obstacles: ◦ Minimal education levels ◦ Lack of work experience Stay-home mothers: Skills could be considered “rusty”
Psychological Challenges Increased stress ◦ Moving to new house decreased sense of security ◦ Losing close friends moving change in marital status ◦ Decreased social support ◦ Personal identity shift Also effects children!
Counseling Counseling offers: ◦ Directional advice ◦ Job training ◦ Volunteer work ◦ Job placement ◦ Child care
Maternal Mortality Defined: ◦ Death of a woman within 42 days of the termination of pregnancy Any length pregnancy Any cause for termination Direct or indirect
IMPORTANCE: Shows the health of a country ◦ MM is a preventable COD (Guendelman, S., Thornton, D., Gould, J., & Hosang, N., 2005) HOW IT’S MEASURED Ratio: Number of pregnancy-related deaths per 100,000 live births.
MM Correlation with Poverty Global MM each year Developing NationsReasons: • Attendants at birth• Lack of basic maternal care • Nutrition • Education • Sanitation • Access (Callister, 2005; WHO, 2007)
United States Sierra Leone 11-21 deaths per 2,100 deaths per 100,000 live 100,000 live births births (WHO, 2007) 100-191 fold increase
CAUSES Hemorrhage (25%) ◦ 88% of deaths are within 4 hours of birth Infection (15%) Unsafe abortions (13%) PIH (12%) Obstructed labor (8%) Indirect Causes (20%) ◦ Malaria ◦ Iron-deficiency anemia ◦ (Callister, 2005)
World Response United Nations ◦ Millennium Development Goals project maternal death by 75% by 2015 ◦ Objectives: Culturally-sensitive approach Education Reproduction Interventions Improve accuracy and standardization of MM statistics
“It is estimated that more than 80% of maternal deaths could be prevented or avoided through actions that are proven to be effective and affordable, even in resource-poor countries.” –WHO (Callister, 2005)
ReferencesDavidson, M. R., London, M. L., & Ladewig, P. A. (2008). Olds’ maternal-newborn nursing & women’s health across the lifespan. (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Thurman, A. R., Hammond, N., Brown, H. E, & Roddy, M. E. (2007). Preventing repeat teen pregnancy: Postpartum depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, oral contraceptive pills or the patch?. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 20, 61-65.Eckholm, E. (2009, September 10). Last year‟s poverty rate was highest in 12 year. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://nytimes.comMozes, A. (2008, February 21). Poverty drains nutrition from family diet. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com
References, cont‟.Cornforth, T. (2009). Symptoms of heart attack in women. Retrieved from http://womenshealth.about.comLocke, W., & Gibbons, M. (2008). On her own again: the use of narrative therapy in career counseling with displaced new traditionalists. The Family Journal, 16. doi: 10.1177/1066480708314258Callister, L. (2005). Global maternal mortality: Contributing factors and strategies for change. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 30(3), 184-192.Callister, L. (2007). Poverty and the health of women and children. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 32(6), 384. doi: 10.1097/01.NMC.0000298137.85526.41
References, cont‟.Guendelman, S., Thornton, D., Gould, J., & Hosang, N. (2005). Social disparities in maternal morbidity during labor and delivery between Mexican-born and US-born white Californians, 1996-1998. American Journal of Public Health. 95(12), 2218-2224. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.051441World Health Organization. (2007). Maternal mortality in 2005: Estimates developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, and the World Bank. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/whosis/mme_2005.pdf