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  • 1. Feminizat ion of PovertyBrenda ClemensColleen CurranKristen GeisingerApril Treible
  • 2. Objectives: Teen Pregnancy ◦ Understand the prevalence of teen pregnancy in the U.S. ◦ Understand the risk factors for teenage pregnancy ◦ Understand risks factors to the child of a teen parent
  • 3. Objectives, cont‟ Women‟s Healthcare ◦ Define poverty and its effects on women ◦ Link the impact poverty has on nutrition ◦ Compare symptoms of men and women during a heart attack
  • 4. Objectives, cont‟ Economics of Divorce ◦ Understand the prevalence of divorce in the U.S. ◦ Understand the challenges of divorce from an economic standpoint ◦ Understand the options health care providers can provide
  • 5. Objectives, cont‟ Maternal Mortality ◦ Learn how maternal mortality is determined and defined. ◦ Learn its correlation to impoverished nations and the reasons why ◦ Identify nursing interventions to decrease mortality
  • 6. Brenda ClemensTEEN PREGNANCY
  • 7. STATISTICS Approximately 820,000 teens become pregnant each year ◦ 78% are unplanned (Davidson, London, & Ladewig, 2008) 17-35% will become pregnant again within 1st year (Thurman, Hammond, Brown, & Roddy, 2007)
  • 8. Risk Factors for TeenPregnancy Poverty Cultural factors Low education Lack of goals High risk behaviors Family dysfunction Poor self esteem (Davidson, London, & Ladewig, 2008)
  • 9. Negative Outcomes ofTeen Pregnancy Decrease in likeliness of finishing high school Increased risk of using welfare Increased risk for premature infants (Davidson, London, & Ladewig, 2008)
  • 10. POTENTIAL OUTCOMESFor children of TeenParents Increased risk for mental retardation Poverty Low birth weight Poor school performance Abuse and neglect (Davidson, London, & Ladewig, 2008)
  • 11. Kristen GeisingerWOMENSHEALTHCARE
  • 12. Poverty Statistics 2008 Census Bureau Poverty Rate Erick Eckholm (2009) of the New York Times defines poverty Women & Poverty
  • 13. NUTRITION & POVERTY Diet of the poor Results of poor nutrition Nurses‟ role: Education
  • 14. Women Vs. Men Different Signs and Symptoms Nurses‟ role: Educate Access to healthcare ◦ Free clinics
  • 15. Colleen CurranECONOMICS OFDIVORCE
  • 16. Problem A significant cause of poverty for women and children. Many couples are getting divorced. Mothers have to depend on themselves and their skills to take care of their families.
  • 17. STATISTICS  “Almost one out of every two marriages ends in divorce.”  “About one half of divorced women receive the full amount of promised child support payments” (Davidson, London, & Ladewig, 2008).
  • 18. STATISTICS, CONT. “7.3 million divorced women are under the age of 65 in the United States. Forty-two percent had incomes below the poverty level and sixteen percent were „near poor‟.” (Locke, & Gibbons, 2008).
  • 19. STATISTICS, CONT.  “Married women with a median income of $53,200 find a decrease in income to $21,000 once a divorce has taken place” (Locke, & Gibbons, 2008).
  • 20. Family Types Two parents work Father works, mother is a stay home mom Mother works, father stays at home
  • 21. Income Challenges afterDivorce Family with 2 parents working: ◦ Take on longer hours ◦ Second job ◦ Child support if applicable Stay at home mom: ◦ Find reliable job ◦ Dependant on child support
  • 22. SEARCHING FOR WORK Search for quality jobs: ◦ Workforce is strict ◦ Best of the best Obstacles: ◦ Minimal education levels ◦ Lack of work experience Stay-home mothers: Skills could be considered “rusty”
  • 23. Psychological Challenges  Increased stress ◦ Moving to new house  decreased sense of security ◦ Losing close friends  moving  change in marital status ◦ Decreased social support ◦ Personal identity shift  Also effects children!
  • 24. Counseling Counseling offers: ◦ Directional advice ◦ Job training ◦ Volunteer work ◦ Job placement ◦ Child care
  • 26. Maternal Mortality Defined: ◦ Death of a woman within 42 days of the termination of pregnancy  Any length pregnancy  Any cause for termination  Direct or indirect
  • 27. IMPORTANCE:  Shows the health of a country ◦ MM is a preventable COD (Guendelman, S., Thornton, D., Gould, J., & Hosang, N., 2005) HOW IT’S MEASURED  Ratio: Number of pregnancy-related deaths per 100,000 live births.
  • 28. MM Correlation with Poverty Global MM each year Developing NationsReasons: • Attendants at birth• Lack of basic maternal care • Nutrition • Education • Sanitation • Access (Callister, 2005; WHO, 2007)
  • 29. United States Sierra Leone 11-21 deaths per  2,100 deaths per 100,000 live 100,000 live births births (WHO, 2007) 100-191 fold increase
  • 30. CAUSES Hemorrhage (25%) ◦ 88% of deaths are within 4 hours of birth Infection (15%) Unsafe abortions (13%) PIH (12%) Obstructed labor (8%) Indirect Causes (20%) ◦ Malaria ◦ Iron-deficiency anemia ◦ (Callister, 2005)
  • 31. World Response United Nations ◦ Millennium Development Goals project  maternal death by 75% by 2015 ◦ Objectives:  Culturally-sensitive approach  Education  Reproduction  Interventions  Improve accuracy and standardization of MM statistics
  • 32. LOW-COST INTERVENTIONS Educating birth attendants ◦ Fundal massage ◦ Immediate breast feeding ◦ Obstructed-labor management Mag-sulfate (PIH) Oxytocin (Callister, 2005)
  • 33. “It is estimated that more than 80% of maternal deaths could be prevented or avoided through actions that are proven to be effective and affordable, even in resource-poor countries.” –WHO (Callister, 2005)
  • 34. ReferencesDavidson, M. R., London, M. L., & Ladewig, P. A. (2008). Olds’ maternal-newborn nursing & women’s health across the lifespan. (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Thurman, A. R., Hammond, N., Brown, H. E, & Roddy, M. E. (2007). Preventing repeat teen pregnancy: Postpartum depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, oral contraceptive pills or the patch?. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 20, 61-65.Eckholm, E. (2009, September 10). Last year‟s poverty rate was highest in 12 year. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://nytimes.comMozes, A. (2008, February 21). Poverty drains nutrition from family diet. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com
  • 35. References, cont‟.Cornforth, T. (2009). Symptoms of heart attack in women. Retrieved from http://womenshealth.about.comLocke, W., & Gibbons, M. (2008). On her own again: the use of narrative therapy in career counseling with displaced new traditionalists. The Family Journal, 16. doi: 10.1177/1066480708314258Callister, L. (2005). Global maternal mortality: Contributing factors and strategies for change. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 30(3), 184-192.Callister, L. (2007). Poverty and the health of women and children. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 32(6), 384. doi: 10.1097/01.NMC.0000298137.85526.41
  • 36. References, cont‟.Guendelman, S., Thornton, D., Gould, J., & Hosang, N. (2005). Social disparities in maternal morbidity during labor and delivery between Mexican-born and US-born white Californians, 1996-1998. American Journal of Public Health. 95(12), 2218-2224. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.051441World Health Organization. (2007). Maternal mortality in 2005: Estimates developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, and the World Bank. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/whosis/mme_2005.pdf