The restoration and the 18th century


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The restoration and the 18th century

  2. 2. TRUE OR FALSE? Since England was established as a nation, it was always had a king or queen. False. Oliver Cromwell, a member of Parliament and one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England in 1653.
  3. 3. END OF A GLORIOUS REIGN • Elizabeth I ruled England from 1559 – 1603. • Called the “Golden Age”, it was a period of success and prosperity in England. • After her death, James I took over the throne.
  4. 4. JAMES I AND CHARLES I • James I and his son Charles I were ineffective and unpopular leaders. • They reigned from 1603 – 1649. • Charles I was executed by his own subjects in 1649. • Afterward, for the first time in history, England was ruled by a parliament and a prime minister instead of an anointed king.
  5. 5. THE RESTORATION • The time when England was restored to its original monarchy, when Charles II (son of Charles I) took over the throne in 1660. • The early 1600’s were filled with civil war, fire, and plague. • By 1800, the end of this period (also called the Neoclassical period, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason), England had achieved peace and order once again. Charles II
  6. 6. 1. Which of the following items best describes England’s transformation over the period from the early 17th century to the middle of the 18th century? a. England moved from a period of comfort and prosperity in the early 17th century to a period of civil war and widespread illness in the middle of the 18th century. b . England moved from a period of civil war, fire , and plague in the early 17th century to a period of relative calm and order in the middle of the 18th century. c. England moved from the Age of Reason in the early 17th century to the Augustan Age in the middle of the 18th century. d. England moved from the Enlightenment in the early 17th century to a period of superstition in the middle of the 18th century.
  7. 7. THE NEOCLASSICAL PERIOD • Neoclassical = New Classical • The trend at the end of the 17 th century was for writers to imitate the style of Latin classics, such as those written by Homer and Octavius. • Events of the 17th century also drew comparison to ancient Rome, such as the restoration of the English monarch in 1660 and Emperor Augustus’ take over of the throne. Both brought peace and order back to the land.
  8. 8. 2. Neoclassical writing a. imitates the old Latin classics b. aims to create a unique English style c. is written by Octavius of ancient Rome d. is translated from classical languages
  9. 9. 3. Which of the following items best describes why the period in England from 1660–1800 was compared with ancient Rome? a. People fled from England to North America; similarly, many people of ancient Rome fled to Latin America. b. England’s colonies struggled for and achieved independence from England, just as the colonies of ancient Rome rebelled against Roman rule and eventually won their freedom. c. The Stuart monarchs restored order to England; likewise, the Emperor Augustus restored order to ancient Rome. d. James II fled from political persecution in England; under similar circumstances, Emperor Augustus of ancient Rome fled Italy.
  10. 10. RELIGIOUS TURMOIL • When Charles II took power after the Puritan dictator Oliver Cromwell, he reestablished the Anglican Church (Protestantism). • Other religions, including Catholics and Puritans, were persecuted. • Many Puritans fled to the Americas and helped to establish the British Colonies. • Charles II was succeeded by his brother James II in 1685. James was a Roman Catholic. • Most people in England despised Catholics, blaming them for the Great Fire of London in 1666. • When James II and his wife produced a male heir, they felt so threatened by the people of England that they fled to France. This was called the Glorious (bloodless) Revolution. • His Protestant daughter, Mary, succeeded the throne. • England has remained Protestant ever since.
  11. 11. 4. Which of the following items best describes the influence of Charles II on the religions of England? a. Charles II reestablished the Anglican Church as the official church of England and tried to outlaw dozens of religious sects. b. Charles II reestablished the Puritan Church as the official church of England and tried to incorporate the doctrine of religious sects into its dogma. c. Charles II reestablished the Catholic Church as the official church of England and tried to outlaw minor religious sects. d. Charles II reestablished the Deist Church as the official church of England and persecuted other religious sects.
  12. 12. 5. The Glorious (bloodless) Revolution was accomplished when James II, a. a Roman Catholic, took the throne from his Protestant wife, Mary b. a Protestant, went to France and returned as a converted Roman Catholic c. a Roman Catholic, fled to France, and his Protestant daughter Mary took the throne d. a Protestant, fled to France with his daughter Mary, a Roman Catholic
  13. 13. THE AGE OF REASON • Another name for the period in British history from 1660 – 1800. • Before this time, people turned to religion or superstition to understand natural phenomena, but new discoveries led to more scientific ways of thinking. • One example was astronomer Edmond Halley’s studies on what has become known as Halley’s comet. He predicted that it would reappear every 67 years, and he was right!
  14. 14. 6. Which of the following statements best describes the change in the way people viewed natural phenomena during the 18th century? a. Natural phenomena were explained by poets and statesmen. b. Natural phenomena were increasingly accounted for by scientific observation. c. Natural phenomena were investigated and explained by kings. d. Natural phenomena were subject to superstitious interpretation by scholars.
  15. 15. MODERN ENGLISH PROSE • As a reaction to the overly elaborate figurative language used by Renaissance writers such as William Shakespeare and John Milton, the Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge called for writing that was precise and exact. • This established modern English prose. • John Dryden was considered the “founder and first true master” of modern English prose.
  16. 16. 7. Modern English prose emerged in an age in which the Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge called for writing that was a. humorous and lighthearted b. epic and poetic c. scholarly and philosophical d. precise and exact
  17. 17. THE AGE OF SATIRE • Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift were disgusted by the unfairness and immorality of British society during the early 18 th century. • At this time, many politicians were corrupt and the wealthy class was overly materialistic and unsympathetic towards the struggling lower-classes. • They both began to write satires, a kind of writing which ridicules human weakness, folly, or vice in order to bring about social reform.
  18. 18. 8. The phrase that best describes the attitudes of Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift is a. hopeful and optimistic b. smug and indifferent c. respectful and humble d. critical and unsatisfied
  19. 19. THE FIRST ENGLISH NOVELS • Novel means “something new”. • By the mid-18th century, writers were writing something new. These long, fictional narratives were called novels. • They were very popular among the middle class. • Most novels were long, comical and told of the adventures of realistic characters.
  20. 20. 9. The first English novels were a. written by popular writers such as William Hogarth and William Wordsworth b. complicated combinations of poetry, drama, and prose c. long, comical, and realistic narratives d. read only by scholars and scientists
  21. 21. THE BEGINNING OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • By the late 1700’s the world was changing dramatically. • The Industrial Revolution meant the transition from handmade materials to those made in factories. • Not only did it change the way things were made, but it also changed the landscape and lifestyle of most of England. • English cities and towns were becoming crowded and filthy slums. • Many writers chose to write about natural landscapes and simple lives as a reaction to the changes they saw around them.
  22. 22. 10. At the end of the eighteenth century, writers chose topics such as natural landscapes and humble life; this reflected their a. dismay at changes caused by the Industrial Revolution b. lack of knowledge about industry or urban life c. tendencies to imitate Augustan literature d. optimistic appreciation of the beauty and promise of industrial progress