TRUE OR FALSE?
Since England was established as a nation, it was always had a
king or queen.
False. Oliver Cromwell, a member of Parliament and one of the
signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, dominated
the short-lived Commonwealth of England in 1653.
END OF A GLORIOUS REIGN
• Elizabeth I ruled England
from 1559 – 1603.
• Called the “Golden Age”, it
was a period of success and
prosperity in England.
• After her death, James I took
over the throne.
JAMES I AND CHARLES I
• James I and his son Charles I
were ineffective and unpopular
• They reigned from 1603 – 1649.
• Charles I was executed by his
own subjects in 1649.
• Afterward, for the first time in
history, England was ruled by a
parliament and a prime minister
instead of an anointed king.
• The time when England was
restored to its original monarchy,
when Charles II (son of Charles I)
took over the throne in 1660.
• The early 1600’s were filled with
civil war, fire, and plague.
• By 1800, the end of this period
(also called the Neoclassical
period, the Enlightenment, and the
Age of Reason), England had
achieved peace and order once
Which of the following items best describes England’s transformation over the
period from the early 17th century to the middle of the 18th century?
a. England moved from a period of comfort and prosperity in the early 17th
century to a period of civil war and widespread illness in the middle of the
b . England moved from a period of civil war, fire , and plague in the early 17th
century to a period of relative calm and order in the middle of the 18th century.
c. England moved from the Age of Reason in the early 17th century to the
Augustan Age in the middle of the 18th century.
d. England moved from the Enlightenment in the early 17th century to a period of
superstition in the middle of the 18th century.
THE NEOCLASSICAL PERIOD
• Neoclassical = New Classical
• The trend at the end of the 17 th century was for
writers to imitate the style of Latin classics, such
as those written by Homer and Octavius.
• Events of the 17th century also drew comparison
to ancient Rome, such as the restoration of the
English monarch in 1660 and Emperor Augustus’
take over of the throne. Both brought peace and
order back to the land.
a. imitates the old Latin classics
b. aims to create a unique English style
c. is written by Octavius of ancient Rome
d. is translated from classical languages
Which of the following items best describes why the period in England from
1660–1800 was compared with ancient Rome?
a. People fled from England to North America; similarly, many people of
ancient Rome fled to Latin America.
b. England’s colonies struggled for and achieved independence from England,
just as the colonies of ancient Rome rebelled against Roman rule and
eventually won their freedom.
c. The Stuart monarchs restored order to England; likewise, the Emperor
Augustus restored order to ancient Rome.
d. James II fled from political persecution in England; under similar
circumstances, Emperor Augustus of ancient Rome fled Italy.
• When Charles II took power after the Puritan dictator Oliver
Cromwell, he reestablished the Anglican Church (Protestantism).
• Other religions, including Catholics and Puritans, were persecuted.
• Many Puritans fled to the Americas and helped to establish the British
• Charles II was succeeded by his brother James II in 1685. James was a
• Most people in England despised Catholics, blaming them for the
Great Fire of London in 1666.
• When James II and his wife produced a male heir, they felt so
threatened by the people of England that they fled to France. This
was called the Glorious (bloodless) Revolution.
• His Protestant daughter, Mary, succeeded the throne.
• England has remained Protestant ever since.
Which of the following items best describes the influence of Charles II on the
religions of England?
a. Charles II reestablished the Anglican Church as the official church of England and
tried to outlaw dozens of religious sects.
b. Charles II reestablished the Puritan Church as the official church of England and
tried to incorporate the doctrine of religious sects into its dogma.
c. Charles II reestablished the Catholic Church as the official church of England and
tried to outlaw minor religious sects.
d. Charles II reestablished the Deist Church as the official church of England and
persecuted other religious sects.
The Glorious (bloodless) Revolution was accomplished when James II,
a. a Roman Catholic, took the throne from his Protestant wife, Mary
b. a Protestant, went to France and returned as a converted Roman
c. a Roman Catholic, fled to France, and his Protestant daughter Mary
took the throne
d. a Protestant, fled to France with his daughter Mary, a Roman
THE AGE OF REASON
• Another name for the period in British history from 1660 –
• Before this time, people turned to religion or superstition
to understand natural phenomena, but new discoveries
led to more scientific ways of thinking.
• One example was astronomer Edmond Halley’s studies
on what has become known as Halley’s comet. He
predicted that it would reappear every 67 years, and he
Which of the following statements best describes the change in the way
people viewed natural phenomena during the 18th century?
a. Natural phenomena were explained by poets and statesmen.
b. Natural phenomena were increasingly accounted for by scientific
c. Natural phenomena were investigated and explained by kings.
d. Natural phenomena were subject to superstitious interpretation by
MODERN ENGLISH PROSE
• As a reaction to the overly elaborate figurative
language used by Renaissance writers such as
William Shakespeare and John Milton, the Royal
Society of London for the Promotion of Natural
Knowledge called for writing that was precise and
• This established modern English prose.
• John Dryden was considered the “founder and
first true master” of modern English prose.
Modern English prose emerged in an age in which the Royal Society of
London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge called for writing that
a. humorous and lighthearted
b. epic and poetic
c. scholarly and philosophical
d. precise and exact
THE AGE OF SATIRE
• Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift were disgusted by the
unfairness and immorality of British society during the early 18 th
• At this time, many politicians were corrupt and the wealthy class
was overly materialistic and unsympathetic towards the struggling
• They both began to write satires, a kind of
writing which ridicules human weakness, folly,
or vice in order to bring about social reform.
The phrase that best describes the attitudes of Alexander Pope and
Jonathan Swift is
a. hopeful and optimistic
b. smug and indifferent
c. respectful and humble
d. critical and unsatisfied
THE FIRST ENGLISH NOVELS
• Novel means “something new”.
• By the mid-18th century, writers were
writing something new. These long,
fictional narratives were called novels.
• They were very popular among the
• Most novels were long, comical and
told of the adventures of realistic
The first English novels were
a. written by popular writers such as William Hogarth and William
b. complicated combinations of poetry, drama, and prose
c. long, comical, and realistic narratives
d. read only by scholars and scientists
THE BEGINNING OF THE
• By the late 1700’s the world was changing dramatically.
• The Industrial Revolution meant the transition from handmade materials to those made in factories.
• Not only did it change the way things were made, but it also
changed the landscape and lifestyle of most of England.
• English cities and towns were becoming crowded and filthy
• Many writers chose to write about natural
landscapes and simple lives as a reaction
to the changes they saw around them.
At the end of the eighteenth century, writers chose topics such as
natural landscapes and humble life; this reflected their
a. dismay at changes caused by the Industrial Revolution
b. lack of knowledge about industry or urban life
c. tendencies to imitate Augustan literature
d. optimistic appreciation of the beauty and promise of industrial