Youth Safety Training
Goals of this training:
• To become familiar with types of abuse and neglect
• To be able to recogni...
Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect
The following definitions may be found under the Massachusetts Department of Childr...
Child Abuse in America
Children are suffering from a hidden epidemic of child abuse and neglect. Every year more than 3 mi...
Child Abuse in America cont.
•

A report of child abuse is made every ten seconds

•

*More than five children die every d...
Consequences of Child Abuse
Child Abuse and Sexual Activity:
•
•

Abused children are 25% more likely to experience teen p...
Consequences of Child Abuse
For the majority of school‐aged children the impact of child abuse and neglect will not be imm...
Societal Costs of Child Abuse
Direct costs to communities include the financial costs of:
• Responding to reports of abuse...
Risk Factors for Abuse
Although we often focus on youth being harmed or mistreated by strangers most abuse is perpetrated
...
Risk Factors for Abuse cont.
Parent/caregiver factors
• Personality characteristics and psychological well being
– Low sel...
Risk Factors for Abuse cont.
Family factors
•
Family Structure
– Single families ‐ primarily with lower income
– Families ...
Risk Factor for Abuse cont.
Youth factors
• Age
– Infants and young children, due to their small physical size, early deve...
Risk Factor for Abuse cont.
•

These factors may be attributable to higher maternal stress heightened by high
caregiver de...
Warning Signs for Child Abuse or Neglect
There are often certain recognizable physical and behavioral indicators of child ...
Warning Signs for Child Abuse or Neglect cont.
PHYSICAL ABUSE
Behavioral indicators cont.
• Has learning problems
• Has be...
Warning Signs for Child Abuse or Neglect cont.
NEGLECT
Behavioral indicators
• Is frequently absent from or late to school...
Warning Signs for Child Abuse or Neglect cont.
SEXUAL ABUSE
Physical indicators
• Reports sexual abuse by a parent or anot...
Warning Signs for Child Abuse or Neglect cont.
SEXUAL ABUSE cont.
Additional indicators for adolescents
• Is self‐destruct...
Warning Signs for Child Abuse or Neglect cont.
EMOTIONAL ABUSE
Physical indicators
• Has speech delays
• Reports a lack of...
Warning Signs for Child Abuse or Neglect cont.
CHILDHOOD BULLYING
Physical indicators
• Child has frequent cuts and/or bru...
Mandated Reporters
Massachusetts law defines the following professionals as mandated reporters:
•

Physicians, medical int...
Nonmandated Reporters and Immunity
•

•

In addition to those persons required to report, any other person may make such a...
Reporting of Child Abuse or Neglect
A mandated report should include:
• Your name, address and telephone number;
• All ide...
Screening, Investigation and Initial
Assessment
•

When DCF receives a report of abuse and/or neglect, called a "51A repor...
Screening, Investigation and Initial
Assessment cont.
If the report is "Screened-In", it is assigned either for a Child Pr...
Guidelines on Interactions Between Individuals
Appropriate, positive interactions among youth and between employees/volunt...
Confidentiality
The following guidelines, have been adapted from the National Association of Social
Workers Code of Ethics...
Responding to a Youth’s Disclosure
Disclosure is difficult for a youth because:
• There is a sense of shame associated wit...
Responding to a Youth’s Disclosure
(AVDR method: Ask/Assess, Validate, Document, Refer)
AVDR is one of many tools utilized...
Responding to a Youth’s Disclosure cont.
(AVDR method: Ask/Assess, Validate, Document, Refer)
Document
• Notify Site Coord...
Responding to a Youth’s Disclosure cont.
How you respond to the youth’s disclosure or attempts at disclosure has important...
Responding to a Youth’s Disclosure cont.
•

Honor the youth’s method of disclosure. If the youth is making a disguised dis...
Steps to Conflict Resolution
1. Set the stage. Agree to try to work together to find a solution peacefully, and establish ...
Suicide Prevention Guideline
•

Suicide facts and figures
– 3rd leading cause of death for young people age 15-24 in the U...
Suicide Prevention Guideline cont.
•

Elements in addressing: Listen, Ask, Report
–

Listen
• Show that you care
– Show co...
Suicide Prevention Guideline cont.
–

–

•

Asking Questions cont.
• Be Direct/ Honest
– If you believe they are at immine...
Promoting Protective Factors and
Building Resiliency
As noted earlier in this training, the fact that many youth and famil...
Protective Factors
Parent/caregiver factors
•
Nurturing and Attachment
– Love
– Acceptance
– Positive guidance
– Protectio...
Protective Factors cont.
Youth factors ‐ Personal Values, Beliefs, and Behaviors
•

Social Competence
– Responsiveness
– C...
Protective Factors cont.
Family factors
• Warmth
• Cohesion as Family group
• Positive Relationship with Parent
or Parent ...
Protective Factors cont.
• Adults don’t need to become experts in psychology, they
need only to understand the potential t...
THANK YOU!
You have completed the first part of the Sole Train Young Sole Safety
training.
Please use the link below to co...
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Young Soles Safety Online PowerPoint Training

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Young Soles Safety Online PowerPoint Training

  1. 1. Youth Safety Training Goals of this training: • To become familiar with types of abuse and neglect • To be able to recognize physical and behavioral indicators of child abuse and neglect • To become familiar with mandated report requirements and immunity • To understand positive and appropriate interactions with youth • To understand Massachusetts’ social services response to a report • To become familiar with how to promote resiliency in youth • To become familiar with effective intervention strategies, including how to respond to a youth’s disclosure
  2. 2. Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect The following definitions may be found under the Massachusetts Department of Children and Families Regulations (110 CMR, section 2.00): • Abuse: the non-accidental commission of any act by a caretaker upon a child under age 18 which causes, or creates a substantial risk of, physical or emotional injury; or constitutes a sexual offense under the laws of the Commonwealth; or any sexual contact between a caretaker and a child under the care of that individual. This definition is not dependent upon location (i.e., abuse can occur while the child is in an out-of-home or in-home setting. • Neglect: Failure by a caretaker, either deliberately or through negligence or inability to take those actions necessary to provide a child with minimally adequate food, clothing, shelter, medical care, supervision, emotional stability and growth, or other essential care; provided, however, that such inability is not due solely to inadequate economic resources or solely to the existence of a handicapping condition. This definition is not dependent upon location (i.e., neglect can occur while the child is in an out-of-home setting). • Emotional Injury: an impairment to or disorder of the intellectual or psychological capacity of a child as evidenced by observable and substantial reduction in the child's ability to function within a normal range of performance and behavior. • Physical Injury: Death; or fracture of a bone, subdural hematoma, burns, impairment of any organ, and any other such nontrivial injury; or soft tissue swelling or skin bruising, depending upon such factors as the child's age, circumstances under which the injury occurred and the number and location of bruises; or addiction to a drug or drugs at birth; or failure to thrive. • Institutional Abuse or Neglect: Abuse or neglect which occurs in any facility for children, including, but not limited to, group homes, residential or public or private schools, hospitals, detention and treatment facilities, family foster care homes, group day care centers and family day care homes. Source: MA Dpmt of Children & Families http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/gov/departments/dcf/
  3. 3. Child Abuse in America Children are suffering from a hidden epidemic of child abuse and neglect. Every year more than 3 million reports of child abuse are made in the United States involving more than 6 million children (a report can include multiple children). The United States has the worst record in the industrialized nation – losing five children every day due to abuse-related deaths. Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau. (2012). Child Maltreatment 2011. Available from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/research-data-technology/statistics-research/child-maltreatment
  4. 4. Child Abuse in America cont. • A report of child abuse is made every ten seconds • *More than five children die every day as a result of child abuse. • It is estimated that between 50-60% of child fatalities due to maltreatment are not recorded as such on death certificates. • More than 90% of juvenile sexual abuse victims know their perpetrator in some way. • Child abuse occurs at every socioeconomic level, across ethnic and cultural lines, within all religions and at all levels of education. • About 30% of abused and neglected children will later abuse their own children, continuing the horrible cycle of abuse. • About 80% of 21 year olds that were abused as children met criteria for at least one psychological disorder. • The estimated annual cost of child abuse and neglect in the United States for 2008 is $124 billion. Source: Childhelp www.childhelp.org
  5. 5. Consequences of Child Abuse Child Abuse and Sexual Activity: • • Abused children are 25% more likely to experience teen pregnancy. Abused teens are more likely to engage in sexual risk taking, putting them at greater risk for STDs. Child Abuse and Criminal Behavior: • • 14% of all men in prison and 36% of women in prison in the USA were abused as children, about twice the frequency seen in the general population. Children who experience child abuse & neglect are about 9 times more likely to become involved in criminal activity. 5 Child Abuse and Substance Abuse: • • One-third to two-thirds of child maltreatment cases involve substance use to some degree. In one study, children whose parents abuse alcohol and other drugs were three times more likely to be abused and more than four times more likely to be neglected than children from non-abusing families. As many as two-thirds of the people in treatment for drug abuse reported being abused or neglected as children. More than a third of adolescents with a report of abuse or neglect will have a substance use disorder before their 18th birthday, three times as likely as those without a report of abuse or neglect. Source: Childhelp www.childhelp.org
  6. 6. Consequences of Child Abuse For the majority of school‐aged children the impact of child abuse and neglect will not be immediately evident. When obvious physical injuries have healed, the child remains at increased risk of impaired development. Abuse can impact the child’s language development, as well as their physical, and cognitive development. Consequently, the abused child is at greater risk of: • Academic problems and school failure; • Increased risk of social and emotional problems, poor peer relationships, substance use and dependency, risky behaviors, and juvenile delinquency. This is especially true for children who experience early and ongoing abuse and neglect. The psychological consequences of child abuse and neglect include: • The immediate effects of isolation, fear, and an inability to trust. When children cannot trust that someone will be there to meet their needs, they tend to develop low self‐esteem, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. • These difficulties can lead to life‐long relationship problems and may also lead to the development of anti‐social behavioral traits. • These children are also more likely to engage in violent behaviors and to be diagnosed with conduct and personality disorders. It is important to note that some children will not develop behavioral problems, so it cannot be assumed that a lack of behavioral problems is evidence against child abuse or neglect. When there are behavioral problems as a result of child abuse and neglect, they will most likely be related to difficulty following rules, being respectful, staying in their seats and keeping on‐task, temper tantrums, and difficult peer relationships. As children become older they are more likely to engage in self‐destructive behaviors such as stealing, truancy, smoking, cutting (self‐mutilation),sexual risk‐taking, and alcohol and substance use. Source: Childhelp www.childhelp.org
  7. 7. Societal Costs of Child Abuse Direct costs to communities include the financial costs of: • Responding to reports of abuse and neglect, • Caring for youth who have been removed from their homes, • Court and legal costs, and the costs of providing services to families involved in the child welfare system. Indirect costs to the community include increased expenditures to: • The educational system for special education services, • Increased use of health care, • The costs associated with providing mental health and substance abuse treatment services to adults and juveniles, and responding to increased juvenile and adult crime Source: Childhelp www.childhelp.org
  8. 8. Risk Factors for Abuse Although we often focus on youth being harmed or mistreated by strangers most abuse is perpetrated by a parent or caretaker, someone who is supposed to love and care for the youth. When we think of a parent who abuses a youth the image is often of an angry, intoxicated person who is physically or emotionally abusive and intentionally harming the youth. In most cases the youth is actually being neglected. Unfortunately, there is no specific indicator that is known to cause abuse and neglect. Researchers and professionals in the field have identified risk factors impacting families that have been found to increase the probability of abuse and neglect and poor developmental outcomes for youth. Risk factors can be found at the youth, parent, family, and community levels. It makes sense really, as risk increases, so does the possibility of abuse and neglect. It is important to recognize that the absence of risk does not mean that child abuse or neglect is not possible, or that all families who experience risk factors will abuse or neglect their children. The fact that many children and families succeed despite the accumulation of risk has led researchers to also identify the strengths and supports available to the child and family. Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  9. 9. Risk Factors for Abuse cont. Parent/caregiver factors • Personality characteristics and psychological well being – Low self esteem – External locus of control (i.e., belief that events result primary from factors outside of individual actions – fate, bad luck) – Poor impulse control – Depression – Anxiety – Anti‐social behavior • • • History of abuse or neglect as a youth Substance abuse Negative attitudes and attributions about a youth’s behavior – Inaccurate knowledge of parenting and youth development – Unrealistic expectations of the youth’s abilities – Negative attitude ‐ youth looks like ex‐husband, youth is “bad” • Age ‐ younger mothers at the time of youth’s birth –linked to the following contributing factors such as: – Lower economic status – Lack of social support – High stress levels Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  10. 10. Risk Factors for Abuse cont. Family factors • Family Structure – Single families ‐ primarily with lower income – Families with few social supports – Large family or many household members – Chaotic homes ‐ household with changing constellations of adult and youth figures e.g., a mother and her children who live on and off with various others, such as the mother's mother, the mother's sister, or various boyfriends have been found to be at greater risk of neglect. • Marital Conflict and Domestic Violence – Youth may witness parental violence ‐whether victims of abuse or not youth exposed to domestic violence experience harmful psychological effects. • Stress – Stressful life events – Parenting stress – Emotional distress • Parent‐Child Interaction – Parent seldom recognizes or rewards youth’s positive behavior – Parent has strong response to youth’s negative behavior – Harsh discipline – hitting, prolonged isolations, verbal aggression – Parent is less supportive, affectionate and playful – Lack of positive parenting skills Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  11. 11. Risk Factor for Abuse cont. Youth factors • Age – Infants and young children, due to their small physical size, early developmental status, and need for constant care, can be particularly vulnerable to maltreatment. Very young children are more likely to experience certain forms of maltreatment, such as shaken baby syndrome and non‐organic failure to thrive. Teenagers, on the other hand, are at greater risk for sexual abuse. • Disabilities – Youth with physical, cognitive, and emotional disabilities appear to experience higher rates of maltreatment than do other children. – Societal attitudes, practices, and beliefs devalue and depersonalize youth with disabilities • Youth perceived as "different" or having special needs, including youth with disabilities, youth with chronic illnesses or youth with difficult temperament are at greater risk of maltreatment. – The demands of caring for these youth may be overwhelming. – Disruptions may occur in the bonding or attachment if the youth and parent are separated by frequent hospitalizations. – Youth may be unresponsive to affection. • Youth may not understand that the abusive behaviors are inappropriate, and is unlikely to escape or defend self. Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  12. 12. Risk Factor for Abuse cont. • These factors may be attributable to higher maternal stress heightened by high caregiver demands, but it also may be related to poor parental education about low birth‐weight, lack of accessible prenatal care, and other factors, such as substance abuse or domestic violence – – – – • Aggression Attention deficit Difficult temperament Behavior problems ‐or the parental perceptions of such problem Environmental Factors‐ often in combination with parent, family, and youth factors – – – – Unemployment or inability to provide economically Poverty Social isolation Violent communities ‐ in unsafe neighborhoods violence may seem acceptable, especially for those who witness it more frequently. Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  13. 13. Warning Signs for Child Abuse or Neglect There are often certain recognizable physical and behavioral indicators of child abuse or neglect. The following signs, by themselves, may not be conclusive evidence of a problem, but serve as indicators of the possibility that a problem exists. In reviewing the signs of abuse, it is important to keep in mind that child abuse and neglect is not strictly limited to one type, and sometimes occurs in combination. PHYSICAL ABUSE Physical indicators • Has unexplained bruises or injuries • Has linear bruising, especially when seen on the buttocks, legs, arms and back • Has injuries where children don’t normally ‐ on the face, legs, bottom or torso • Has bruising in various stages of healing especially when on different body parts • Has bruises in the shape of an object, a hand, shoe, iron, stick, belt, etc. • Has fading bruises or other marks noticeable after an absence from school Behavioral indicators • Reports injury by a parent or another adult caregiver • Provides difficult to believe explanations for injuries • Has difficulty sitting, complains of soreness, or moves uncomfortably • Wears clothing to cover body especially when inappropriate to weather • Reports mistreatment of animals in the home • Becomes withdrawn, aggressive or self‐destructive • Is bullied or is a bully • Routinely arrives at school early or stays late • Is overly compliant, an overachiever or overly responsible • Seems frightened of the parents; appears afraid of being at home • Is always watchful and alert ‐ as though preparing for something bad to happen Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  14. 14. Warning Signs for Child Abuse or Neglect cont. PHYSICAL ABUSE Behavioral indicators cont. • Has learning problems • Has behavior changes just prior to going home from school or when picked up • Is wary of adult contact; cringes or flinches when others get close Additional indicators for adolescents • Chronic runaway • Engages in violent or dangerous behavior NEGLECT Physical indicators • Has not received attention for physical or medical problems • Medical needs are only cared for when urgent, has untreated dental needs • Has consistently bad hygiene, has unwashed, matted hair and noticeable body odor • Clothing is too large or too small or inappropriate for the weather • Receives little or no support from family with homework and school activities • Reports no caretaker, or inconsistent caretakers at home • Has attended numerous schools with delays in enrollment • Has no pets or many pets; describes pets as hungry or dying • Routinely loses, or does not return school papers, permission slips, etc • Does not have money for lunch, arrives to school in time for free meals • Is accidentally hurt or abused by someone other than parent while unsupervised Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  15. 15. Warning Signs for Child Abuse or Neglect cont. NEGLECT Behavioral indicators • Is frequently absent from or late to school • Is allowed to play in unsafe environments or with unsafe people • Is responsible for household, cooking, cleaning, laundry, and care of siblings, not typically seen in children of the same age and family size • Feels responsible for meeting the needs of parent • Is tired; falls asleep in class • Displays excessive need for affection or attention • Exhibits self‐soothing behaviors, thumb sucking, rocking • Has learning problems, speech delays and delayed physical development • Is self‐destructive, engages in delinquent behavior at a young age • Has difficulty making and keeping friends • Begs or steals food or money from classmates Additional indicators for adolescents • Drops out of school • Uses drugs or alcohol • Increasingly engages in dangerous or delinquent behavior Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  16. 16. Warning Signs for Child Abuse or Neglect cont. SEXUAL ABUSE Physical indicators • Reports sexual abuse by a parent or another adult caregiver • Has difficulty walking or sitting • Has a sudden weight change • Has frequent somatic complaints, stomach or head ache, sore throat • Suddenly refuses to change for gym or to participate in physical activities • Has sudden negative change in appearance • Has frequent urinary or yeast infections not explained by medical condition or treatment • Becomes pregnant or contracts a venereal disease, particularly if under age fourteen • Runs away Behavioral indicators • Shows sudden changes in behavior or school performance • Is inappropriately seductive • Has sophisticated knowledge or interested in sexual activity and behaviors beyond same age peers • Perpetrates sexual activity with another child, particularly a younger or more vulnerable child • Is overly protective of siblings • Avoids a specific person without an obvious reason • Talks a lot about an adult • Is threatened by physical contact, closeness • Is always watchful, as though preparing for something bad to happen • Comes to school early, stays late, and does not want to go home Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  17. 17. Warning Signs for Child Abuse or Neglect cont. SEXUAL ABUSE cont. Additional indicators for adolescents • Is self‐destructive • Is considered promiscuous • Abuses drugs or alcohol • Self mutilates or attempts suicide • Develops an eating disorder • Runs away CHILD ON CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE Behavioral indicators • Low self‐esteem • Shows unusual signs of anxiety • Shows signs of guilt • Exhibits signs of depression • Becomes more angry and hostile Additional indicators for adolescents • Shows signs of Post‐Traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD) • Suicidal thoughts or ideation • Misses or skips a lot of school • Runs away from home • Abuses drugs or alcohol • Is sexually promiscuous Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  18. 18. Warning Signs for Child Abuse or Neglect cont. EMOTIONAL ABUSE Physical indicators • Has speech delays • Reports a lack of attachment to the parent • Exhibits frequent somatic complaints typical with anxiety, ulcers, frequent stomach or headaches Behavioral indicators • Is fearful or anxious about doing something wrong or making a mistake • Is excessively withdrawn • Does no play as other children do • Speaks negatively about his/herself • Does not appear to be attached to the parent or caregiver • Displays extremes in behavior, being overly compliant one minute and demanding the next • Is extremely passive or aggressive • Has delayed emotional development, exhibited by crying, whining, temper tantrums, hitting, biting, etc. • Engages in self‐soothing behaviors, thumb sucking, rocking, etc., outgrown by peers • Has inappropriate adult behaviors; for example, parenting other children • Comes to school early, stays late, and does not want to go home • Has learning problems • Appears anti‐social and or destructive • Is bullied or is a bully • Attempts suicide Additional indicators for adolescents • Over eats • Abuses alcohol or other drugs Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  19. 19. Warning Signs for Child Abuse or Neglect cont. CHILDHOOD BULLYING Physical indicators • Child has frequent cuts and/or bruises with excuses to explain them • Physical complaints • Changes in sleeping or eating patterns • Has ripped or torn clothing at the end of the school day Behavioral indicators • Child has a sudden reluctance to go to school • Lost lunch money or personal possessions and has excuses that seem untrue • Spends much more time alone • Looking and acting sad Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  20. 20. Mandated Reporters Massachusetts law defines the following professionals as mandated reporters: • Physicians, medical interns, hospital personnel engaged in the examination, care or treatment of persons, medical examiners; • Emergency medical technicians, dentists, nurses, chiropractors, podiatrists, optometrists, osteopaths; • Public or private school teachers, educational administrators, guidance or family counselors; • Early education, preschool, child care or after school program staff, including any person paid to care for, or work with, a child in any public or private facility, home or program funded or licensed by the Commonwealth, which provides child care or residential services. This includes child care resource and referral agencies, as well as voucher management agencies, family child care and child care food programs; • Child care licensors, such as staff from the Department of Early Education and Care; • Social workers, foster parents, probation officers, clerks magistrate of the district courts, and parole officers; • Firefighters and police officers; • School attendance officers, allied mental health and licensed human services professionals; • Psychiatrists, psychologists and clinical social workers, drug and alcoholism counselors; • Clergy members, including ordained or licensed leaders of any church or religious body, persons performing official duties on behalf of a church or religious body, or persons employed by a religious body to supervise, educate, coach, train or counsel a child on a regular basis; and • The Child Advocate. Source: MA Dpmt of Children & Families http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/gov/departments/dcf/
  21. 21. Nonmandated Reporters and Immunity • • In addition to those persons required to report, any other person may make such a report if any such person has reasonable cause to believe that a child is suffering from abuse or neglect. No other person making such report shall be liable in any civil or criminal action by reason of such report if it was made in good faith; provided, however, that such person did not perpetrate or inflict said abuse or cause said neglect. Source: MA Dpmt of Children & Famiies http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/gov/departments/dcf/
  22. 22. Reporting of Child Abuse or Neglect A mandated report should include: • Your name, address and telephone number; • All identifying information you have about the child and parent or other caretaker, if known; • The nature and extent of the suspected abuse and/or neglect, including any evidence or knowledge of prior injury, abuse, maltreatment, or neglect; • The identity of the person you believe is responsible for the abuse or neglect; • The circumstances under which you first became aware of the child's injuries, abuse, maltreatment or neglect; • Document: Report of Child(ren) Alleged to be Suffering from Serious Physical or Emotional Injury by Abuse or Neglect Source: MA Dpmt of Children & Famiies http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/gov/departments/dcf/
  23. 23. Screening, Investigation and Initial Assessment • When DCF receives a report of abuse and/or neglect, called a "51A report," from either a mandated reporter or another concerned citizen DCF is required to evaluate the allegations and determine the safety of the children. During DCF's response process to a report of a child abuse and neglect, all mandated reporters are required to answer the Department's questions and provide information to the Department to assist the Department in determining whether a child is being abused or neglected, the child's safety and an evaluation of the child's household. Here are the steps in the Child Protective Services (CPS) process: • The report is screened. The purpose of the screening process is to gather sufficient information to determine whether the allegation meets the Department's criteria for suspected abuse and/or neglect, whether there is immediate danger to the safety of a child, whether DCF involvement is warranted and how best to target the Department's initial response. The Department begins its screening process immediately upon receipt of a report. During the screening process DCF obtains information from the person filing the report and also contacts professionals involved with the family such as doctors or teachers that may be able to provide information about the child's condition. DCF may also contact the family if appropriate. Source: MA Dpmt of Children & Families http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/gov/departments/dcf/
  24. 24. Screening, Investigation and Initial Assessment cont. If the report is "Screened-In", it is assigned either for a Child Protective Services (CPS) Investigation or Assessment Response: 1. CPS Investigation Response: Generally, cases of sexual or serious physical abuse, or severe neglect will be assigned to the CPS Investigation Response. The severity of the situation will dictate whether it requires an emergency or non-emergency investigation. The primary purpose of the Investigation Response is to determine the safety of the reported child, the validity of an allegation and person(s) responsible, whether continued DCF intervention is necessary and to assess risk to the child. 2. CPS Assessment Response (Initial Assessment): Generally, moderate or lower risk allegations, are assigned to the CPS Assessment Response. The primary purpose of the Assessment Response is to determine if DCF involvement is necessary and to engage and support families. This response involves a review of the reported allegations, assessing safety and risk of the child, identifying family strengths and determining what, if any, supports and services are needed. A determination is made as to whether there is a basis to the allegation, whether the child can safely remain at home and whether the family would benefit from continued DCF involvement. If DCF involvement continues, a Comprehensive Assessment and Service Plan are developed with the family. Some families come to the attention of the Department outside the 51A process: Child in Need of Services (CHINS) cases referred by the Juvenile Court, cases referred by the Probate Court, babies surrendered under the Safe Haven Act, and voluntary requests for services by a parent/family. These cases are generally referred directly for a Comprehensive Assessment. What are the timeframes for completing a Screening, Investigation and/or Assessment? • Screening: Begins immediately for all reports. For an emergency response it is completed within 2 hours. For a nonemergency response, investigation or assessment, screening may take up to 3 business days as appropriate. • Emergency Investigation: Must begin within 2 hours and be completed within five (5) business days of the report. • Non-Emergency Investigation: Must begin within 2 business days and be completed within fifteen (15) business days of the report. • Assessment (Initial): Must begin within 2 business days and be completed within fifteen (15) business days of the report. • Comprehensive Assessment: Up to 45 business days. Source: MA Dpmt of Children & Families http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/gov/departments/dcf/
  25. 25. Guidelines on Interactions Between Individuals Appropriate, positive interactions among youth and between employees/volunteers and youth are essential in supporting positive youth development, making youth feel valued, and providing the caring connections that serve as protective factors for youth. Conversely, inappropriate or harmful interactions put youth at risk for adverse physical and emotional outcomes. Sometimes it is unclear if a behavior is appropriate, inappropriate, or harmful. For example, intimate contact, such as kissing, may be developmentally appropriate for older youth, but may be inappropriate within the confines of the organization. It may even be harmful if the kissing is coercive. Another example involves hugging. Hugging may be appropriate and positive in some circumstances, but it can also be inappropriate if the child is not receptive, if the volunteer is hugging too often or for too long, or if the contact is romanticized or sexually intimate. Verbal communication Appropriate: • Praise • Positive reinforcement for good work/behavior Inappropriate/harmful: • Sexually provocative or degrading comments • Risqué jokes Physical behavior Appropriate: • Pats on the back or shoulder Inappropriate/harmful: • Patting the buttocks • Intimate/romantic/sexual contact • Corporal punishment • Showing pornography or involving youth in pornographic activities Source: Mass Mentoring Partnership
  26. 26. Confidentiality The following guidelines, have been adapted from the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics: • You should not solicit private information from youth unless it is essential to providing services • You do not have an obligation to keep information confidential when disclosure is necessary to prevent serious, foreseeable, and imminent harm to a youth or other identifiable person. Discuss sensitive matters with your Site Coordinator or Sole Train staff • You should not discuss confidential information in any setting unless privacy can be ensured. You should not discuss confidential information in public or semipublic areas such as hallways, kitchens, staircases, or dining areas • You should protect the confidentiality of youths’ written and electronic records and other sensitive information. You should take reasonable steps to ensure that youths’ records are stored in a secure location and that their records are available only to those who are authorized to have access • Site Coordinators and Sole Train staff might discuss private matters more often than people in other roles. Each adshould be careful not to exceed the boundaries of their own role or ask questions just to satisfy their curiosity. Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
  27. 27. Responding to a Youth’s Disclosure Disclosure is difficult for a youth because: • There is a sense of shame associated with the maltreatment • There is a sense of loyalty to the abuser • There is a real fear of not being believed • There is a fear of negative consequences—to the child or to family members Fear of Consequences • Abusers often tell youth that bad things will happen if they tell others about the maltreatment. It is a “secret” that is not to be shared. Whether the abuser directly threatens the youth or just implies that there will be consequences, the impact on the youth is the same. This fear of what might happen makes the disclosure that much more difficult for the youth. • Because of this fear, youth are much more likely to share information in an indirect way — hoping that you will figure out what they are trying to tell you. Indirect Disclosure • Indirect disclosure might sound like this: – – – Indirect hints — “My babysitter keeps bothering me.” Disguised disclosure — “What would happen if a girl was being touched in a bad way and she told someone about it?” Disclosure with strings — “I have a problem but if I tell you about it, you have to promise not to tell.” Source: Virginia Department of Education
  28. 28. Responding to a Youth’s Disclosure (AVDR method: Ask/Assess, Validate, Document, Refer) AVDR is one of many tools utilized by social service, community health and youth workers when facing challenging disclosures from youth and adults. AVDR is not a comprehensive response but rather, an empowering communication style that helps navigate difficult issues like safety and mandated reporting. Ask/Assess • Them – Let them know you are concerned about them and ask them what is going on. – Ask for the whole story – get details. – Ask if they are in danger of being harmed or harming themselves or someone else. – Ask if they have a safe place to stay. • Yourself – What is the real issue (is there anything more to this story)? – Am I letting my personal values/beliefs impact how I deal with the crisis? – Am I the appropriate person to deal with this situation (if no get help a.s.a.p.)? – Am I trying to fix the situation single handedly (if yes – stop – and get help)? – Is this serious enough to be mandated reporting? (When in doubt contact the Site Coordinator/Sole Train staff). If it is, let the youth know by saying something to the effect of, “I want you to know I take your safety very seriously and there are actually laws that protect you. I may need to get some help to make sure that we do everything we can to keep you safe. This could include calling Child Protective Services.” Validate • Normalize the situation – let the youth know that they are not alone in this kind of situation and that people have made it through before. • Tell them you believe them • Tell them (in cases of violence) it is not their fault – everyone deserves to be safe. • Tell them that you are there to support them. • Don’t say: – You can fix this – I understand what you are going through – This isn’t a big deal – I can’t believe… Source: The Food Project: Youth Development Supplemental Protocols & Guidelines
  29. 29. Responding to a Youth’s Disclosure cont. (AVDR method: Ask/Assess, Validate, Document, Refer) Document • Notify Site Coordinator and/or Sole Train staff as soon as possible. • Fill out an incident report for Sole Train. • Be sure to include dates, locations and individual’s names. • Let youth know that this information is kept confidential and won’t be shown to others except in cases where a report is made to Child Protective Services. Refer • You do not have to be an expert. • Know a few resources (see resource guide). • Encourage the youth to follow up on the referral – find rides and supports for youth as necessary. • If they refuse let them know that they have options and that you will keep the information if they need it in the future. • When giving contact info be as detailed and specific as possible – giving a contact name and number and directions on how to get there. • Follow up – check-in but don’t harass the youth. Take care of your self • Sometimes other’s disclosures can bring up feelings for us. Remember, you are not alone. Find someone, including Site Coordinator and/or Sole Train staff, from whom you can get support and guidance without disclosing confidential information. Source: The Food Project: Youth Development Supplemental Protocols & Guidelines
  30. 30. Responding to a Youth’s Disclosure cont. How you respond to the youth’s disclosure or attempts at disclosure has important consequences. Not responding may leave the youth feeling abandoned or unprotected. On the other hand, being overly emotional or intrusive may scare the youth and hinder the disclosure. Here are some additional, general ideas about how to respond to disclosure: • Find a place that is private to talk to the youth. Make sure you won’t be interrupted. • Don’t sit behind a desk. Sit near the youth to put him or her at ease. • Don’t touch the youth without permission. Touch may be associated with the abuse. When there is suspicion of abuse (e.g., a child’s report of inflicted injury or teacher observation of questionable injuries), a cursory, non-invasive observation of the reported injured areas may be appropriate, especially if the injury is located on appendages or non-private body parts. When observing injuries, the youth’s need for privacy should be respected. The youth’s consent should be obtained in a noncoercive manner. A youth’s refusal to show injured areas should be respected. • Youth should not be needlessly subjected to physical inspections. There must be sufficient cause to suspect that viewing the child’s body would reveal evidence of injury. • Remain calm. Your response to the youth’s information is critical. What the youth tells you or what you may see upon further examination may shock you. Responding in a calm, caring way will support the youth. Rather than showing your discomfort, acknowledge that the injury, if there is one, looks like it would hurt or note how difficult it is to talk about things like this. • Listen to the youth. Let the youth talk to you and tell you what he or she thinks is important before you ask any questions. Use your best listening skills. Give the youth your full attention. Don't be thinking ahead about what you should do. At the moment the youth is disclosing to you, listening is the most important thing you can do. Use your ears, your eyes, and your heart to hear what the youth is telling you. • Paying close attention to what the youth is saying is critical. Sometimes what the youth discloses (“the secret”) is not related to abuse/neglect (parental loss of job, divorce, etc.). The issue may have a profound effect on the youth, but may not be what you at first suspected. • Use the youth’s language. Avoid words he or she might not understand or might find embarrassing. Use the words that the youth uses to describe what has happened or is happening. This is particularly important in disclosure of possible sexual abuse. Using language that the youth is using can lower the youth’s level of embarrassment when talking about a subject that is so personal. Source: Virginia Department of Education
  31. 31. Responding to a Youth’s Disclosure cont. • Honor the youth’s method of disclosure. If the youth is making a disguised disclosure (for instance, claiming that the abuse happened to someone else), encourage the youth to tell you about the situation. The youth will often reveal that he or she is the actual victim after talking for a while. • Avoid asking “why” questions. Youth often feel they have done something wrong or must defend themselves when asked why. Asking “why” questions implies that someone hasn't done something they should have. In cases of abuse/neglect, children are already concerned that they may be to blame for what is happening to them. The abuser often tells them that it is their fault. Asking a youth why he/she didn't tell someone sooner, for example, makes the youth think that she has done something wrong. • Reassure the youth, but be sure to do so realistically. Let the youth know that he or she is not to blame for what is happening. You cannot promise the youth that the alleged abuser will not get angry or that “no one will get into trouble.” Try to reframe the youth’s concerns by assuring him or her that telling you was the right thing to do. It is also important to tell the youth what will happen next. • Try to get enough information to determine the child’s safety. Immediate action is needed if you think the youth is in imminent danger. Generally, you alone will not have to make decisions regarding the youth’s immediate safety as the youth is in a Sole Train practice with you. If the youth expresses genuine fear of returning to the alleged abuser, or if the physical or emotional condition of the child leads you to believe that the situation is an emergency, immediate contact must be made with Child Protective Services so that an assessment of imminent danger can be done. • Support the youth. Even though you will be turning over responsibility to a Child Protective Services worker, the youth will continue to look to you for support since you know about the situation, and the youth will see you as a safe person. • Let the youth know what you will do now that you know about the abuse/neglect. • Reassure the youth that you will not share this information with other participants in the program. But, do let the child know that you may need to tell a “helping person.” Source: Virginia Department of Education
  32. 32. Steps to Conflict Resolution 1. Set the stage. Agree to try to work together to find a solution peacefully, and establish ground rules (refer to team’s Community Norms). 2. Gather perspectives. Each person describes the dispute from his or her perspective, without interruption. Listeners pay close attention and then ask clarifying questions in a non- threatening manner. Listeners consider not only what the other persons say they want, but why they want it. For example, if someone insists that you pay for something they believe you broke, they may be doing so not because they really care about the object or the money, but because they feel that you don't respect them. Addressing the other person's need to feel respected may be key to resolving the conflict. 3. Find common interests. Establish which facts and issues all participants agree on and determine why different issues are important to each person. Identify common interests, which can be as simple as a mutual desire to resolve the problem without resorting to violence or a shared need to save face. 4. Walk in the other person’s shoes: Have each participant place themselves in the other person’s situation and describe the feelings they would have if they had that same experience. 5. Create options. Take time for each person to brainstorm about possible solutions to the problem. Come up with a list of options without immediately judging them or feeling committed to them. Try to think of solutions where both people gain something-think win-win! Too often we assume that for one person to win, the other person has to lose. In reality, it is often possible to think creatively and come up with a solution that both people feel good about, where both walk away feeling that their needs have been met (a “both and”). 6. Evaluate options. After a number of options are suggested, each person discusses his or her feelings about each of the proposed solutions. Participants will negotiate and often will need to compromise in order to reach a conclusion that is acceptable to both. They may need to agree to disagree about some issues to reach an understanding. 7. Create an agreement. The people involved explicitly state their agreement and may even want to write it down. If necessary, they set up a time to check back to see how the agreement is working. When people use such an approach to resolve conflicts and disagreements, they often find that conflicts don't have to be avoided, nor do they necessarily lead to violence. Conflict can actually be a positive force in their lives; it can provide people with an opportunity to take a close look at themselves and their attitudes and beliefs. If resolved positively, conflicts can actually help strengthen relationships and build greater understanding. Adapted from: The Food Project: Youth Development Supplemental Protocols & Guidelines
  33. 33. Suicide Prevention Guideline • Suicide facts and figures – 3rd leading cause of death for young people age 15-24 in the U.S. – Over 4300 young people ages 15-24 in the U.S. die from suicide each year – Leading method used in Mass. is suffocation/hanging – Leading method used in U.S. is firearms • Suicide Myths – Talking about suicide will cause someone to attempt suicide – Once someone is suicidal they are suicidal forever – You have to be a mental health professional to help someone who is suicidal • Youth Risk Factors – Receiving special education services – Homelessness – Sexual minority – Binge drinking and illegal drug use – Experienced violence – Mental Health issues – Previous suicide attempts • Warning signs – Preoccupation with suicide and or death – Sadness/hopelessness – Dramatic change in behavior or moods – Declining school performance – Loss of pleasure/interest in social and sports activities – Sleeping too little/ too much – Change in weight/appetite – Unexplained cuts, scrapes or bruises Source: The Food Project: Youth Development Supplemental Protocols & Guidelines
  34. 34. Suicide Prevention Guideline cont. • Elements in addressing: Listen, Ask, Report – Listen • Show that you care – Show compassion – Slow your rate of speech • Give full attention – Active listening (give both visual *nodding etc...+ and verbal *“uh hu,” “Yes,” etc…+ cues) – No distractions – Give enough time – Acknowledge feelings as well as facts – Asking Questions • Questions – Keep open ended (keep them talking) – Avoid interrogation (avoid “why” questions) – Don’t avoid the pain – Don’t worry about perfect words just be sincere and compassionate • Deal with person not the problem – Acknowledge the pain using their words – Speak to them as an equal – Don’t label their feelings for them – Give affirmations • Avoid – Talking about yourself – Giving advice – Judging their feelings Source: The Food Project: Youth Development Supplemental Protocols & Guidelines
  35. 35. Suicide Prevention Guideline cont. – – • Asking Questions cont. • Be Direct/ Honest – If you believe they are at imminent risk ask them directly: » “Are you feeling so bad that you are thinking about taking your life?” or » “Are you talking about taking your life?” – Be ready to continue to engage and support them whether answer is yes or no – Be upfront that you will be communicating with the Site Coordinator/Sole Train Staff . Explain that you care about them and have to get them help. Report • Breathe Deeply, stay calm and continue to engage the person to reduce their and your stress • Inform the Site Coordinator and Sole Train staff immediately. • Call for help – Local hospital or Emergency (911) – Contact addition resources as needed (see below) Resources – Boston Emergency services Team (B.E.S.T.) 1-800-981-HELP 924 hour service) – Samaritans 617-247-0220 or 1-877-870-HOPE – Samariteens 1-800-252-TEENS – Department of Mental health 24 Hour Emergency Crisis • Lynn 781-596-9222 • Beverly 888-550-4433 – Samaritanshope.org – Masspreventsuicide.org – Suicidepreventionlifeline.org – Helpguide.org (depression and teens) Source: The Food Project: Youth Development Supplemental Protocols & Guidelines
  36. 36. Promoting Protective Factors and Building Resiliency As noted earlier in this training, the fact that many youth and families succeed despite the accumulation of risk has led researchers to also identify the strengths and supports available to youth and family. These strengths and supports are known as “protective factors” and they help build resilience against risk. Similar to risk factors, protective factors can also be found at the youth, parent, family and community levels. An understanding of risk and protective factors allows youth and families to be viewed in the context of their environments, instead of as “bad” or “problematic” individuals. This strengths‐based rather than deficit‐based approach to working with youth and families provides a much better chance of improving the outcomes for the “problems” identified. Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  37. 37. Protective Factors Parent/caregiver factors • Nurturing and Attachment – Love – Acceptance – Positive guidance – Protection – Knowledge of Parenting Skills – Respectful communication – Consistent rules and expectations – Authoritative parenting • Knowledge of Youth Development – Safe opportunities for independence – Motivation – Encouraging curiosity • Parental Resilience – Capacity to cope with stress • Concrete Supports‐ability to meet basic needs – Food – Clothing – Housing – Transportation • Access to essential services – Child care – Health care – Mental health service • Social Connections – Emotionally supportive friends, family, and neighbors Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  38. 38. Protective Factors cont. Youth factors ‐ Personal Values, Beliefs, and Behaviors • Social Competence – Responsiveness – Communication – Empathy – Caring – Compassion – Altruism – Forgiveness • Autonomy – Positive identity – Internal locus of control – Initiative – Self‐efficacy – Resistance – Self‐awareness – Mindfulness – self‐aware, present in the moment – Humor • Problem Solving Skills – Planning – Flexibility – Resourcefulness – Critical-thinking – Insight • Sense of Purpose – Goal direction – Achievement motivation – Educational aspirations – Special interest – Creativity – Imagination – Optimism – Hope – Faith – Spirituality – Sense of meaning Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  39. 39. Protective Factors cont. Family factors • Warmth • Cohesion as Family group • Positive Relationship with Parent or Parent Figure • Physical and Psychological Safety • Structure • Absence of Stress Environment • Caring Relationships • High Expectations • Opportunities for Participation • Positive Peer Influence • Available Mentors • Sense of Place/Culture/Identify • Sense of Community • Safe • Opportunities for Positive Activities – Religious community – Afterschool programs – Safe, enjoyable activities • Availability of Social Supports Source: Childhelp Speak Up and Be Safe Curriculum, www.childhelp.org
  40. 40. Protective Factors cont. • Adults don’t need to become experts in psychology, they need only to understand the potential their attitude about youth and their interactions with them have. They need to be aware of their words and plan for activities and opportunities to promote the potential in each youth. If the adult conveys optimism about the future, the youth will be hopeful, but if the attitude is negative the opportunity to develop hope is lost. • Similarly, when the environment is supportive, challenging, and involving, and the potential of each youth recognized, protective factors and resilience are promoted. • Every interaction becomes an opportunity to build protective factors and promote resilience.
  41. 41. THANK YOU! You have completed the first part of the Sole Train Young Sole Safety training. Please use the link below to complete the survey quiz portion of this training: http://quizstar.4teachers.org/indexs.jsp Username: Your email address Password: soletrainrocks (Note: all lowercase) If you have any difficulties viewing/completing the survey, feel free to contact Sole Train staff for assistance.
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