Recommendations for Using
1. Prepare the students for what they are going
to see, hear, or do.
2. Arrange conditions to show special materials
under the best possible conditions so they do
not interrupt the momentum of the lesson.
3. Operate the equipment efficiently.
4. Summarize the experience or follow up with
Steps by Charles Schuller
1. Define your objectives
2. Know the content
3. Guide learners on what to look for
4. Evaluate the results
Chalkboard and Display Board
the oldest and most traditional piece of
equipment found in the classroom.
Considered to be so omnipresent that
many of us fail to think of it as an
audiovisual aid at all; yet most teachers
would be hard put if they had no
chalkboards available (Eduucators)
allows for spontaneity, speed, and change;
Can fit the tempo of any lesson in ay subject;
Can be used for displaying pictures and
important clippings; drawing sketches, etc.;
Valuable for emphasizing the major points of
a lesson and working out problems for the
whole class to see
• Used for:
Displaying student projects and progress;
Displaying current items of interest related
to a lesson unit;
Posting announcements, memos, and
routine assignments; and
Decorating the room
Types of Display Board
1. Write legibly and large enough for all to see.
2. Use the chalkboard as if you were writing on
3. While writing, stand to one side of the board
as much as possible so you can maintain eye
contact with students
4. Stand to the side so you don’t block the
5. Don’t talk toward the chalkboard while
writing on it.
6. If the chalkboard is limited, draw a line down
the middle of the board, thus creating a
margin and two smaller boards.
7. Organize your chalkboard work ahead of
8. Don’t clutter the board.
9. If you must abbreviate, use standard forms.
10. Utilize colored chalk, rulers, string, stencils,
and other materials to make your illustrations
11. Don’t get embarrassed or show resentment
if you make a mistake and a student corrects
12. If you are working with young or low-
achieving students, write in complete
13. Establish routine uses for the chalkboard.
14. Erase the chalkboards completely after you
finish, and keep them clean.
15. Don’t overuse the chalkboard.
• The most influential and seductive
educational medium for transmitting
ideas and persuading an audience to a
point of view.
• Both interest and motivate students
• Useful for showing processes in which
motion is involved or in which slow
motion can be used.
Categories of Films
3. Special topic
4. Slice of Life
• A series of pictures in a fixed sequence on a
strip of 35mm film for still projection
• Are compact, easy to store, relatively
inexpensive to buy, easy to project, and
somewhat flexible in use
• Explanatory symbols or captions are often
• Filmstrips with recorded sound narrations,
called sound filmstrips, are produced.
• Are individual pieces of film for
projection, mounted on thin cardboard
or plastic frames, usually 2-inch squares.
• Are more flexible than filmstrips, since
unnecessary slides can be omitted.
• Slide sets are accompanied by audiotape
Guidelines for Using
1. Keep the film lists up to date.
2. When ordering from sources outside the
school, be sure to order well in advance of
the screening date.
3. Preview the film.
4. Arrange to have the projector and screen or
video equipment in the classroom.
5. Be sure all students can see the screen.
6. Prepare the students for the presentation.
7. Note-taking is difficult in a darkened room
and should not be expected or encouraged
while the projector is running.
8. Use the equipment properly.
9. View a film without interruption, if possible.
10. If commentary is needed during the movie,
either stop the projector or reduce the
volume, but do this as little as possible.
11. Call on volunteers to read if there are
captions in the filmstrips.
12. Allow time for discussion after the film.
13. Be sure to put the film back properly into its
14. Disconnect all wires.
• projects images of transparencies on a screen,
wall, or chalkboard.
• is lightweight and portable.
• has become the standard equipment in many
classrooms and has replaced the chalkboard
and opaque projector in many other
1. Keep the materials up to date.
2. Arrange ahead of time to have a projector
and other necessary materials available when
you need them.
3. Preview the materials or prepare them before
4. Handle overhead projector with care.
5. Label materials properly for filing and
6. Be sure the materials are appropriate for the
students’ interests and maturity level.
7. Be sure all students can see the surface on
which the material is projected.
8. Arrange the materials in sequence with the
9. Explain and discuss each of the projected
10. Shut off the machine when it is not in use
• has become a second school system.
• is viewed to be the “first curriculum”
including other mass media because they
appear to be affecting the way children
develop learning skills and acquire knowledge
• Data suggest that for upper elementary and
secondary school students, watching
television more than a day is associated with
lowered achievement in reading and
• Because of television’s impact on
acculturation and socialization of children
and youth and its influence on all society,
educators cannot ignore this medium.
Types of Television
1. Educational television
Refers to programs produced for broadcast
on commercial or public television
stations that are intended to inform and
Types of Television
2. Instructional television
refers to programs produced by schools to
teach specific skills and subject matter and
for viewing in school.
• Television has the potential for adding
• Students can learn about current events and
scientific advances, be exposed to dramatic
and musical performances, become better
acquainted with leading figures in the world of
arts, science, politics, etc.