AS Two Alternatives to the Laboratory Experiment AND Answers


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AS Two Alternatives to the Laboratory Experiment AND Answers

  1. 1. Two Alternatives to the Laboratory Experiment Answers!!!
  2. 2. 1. What are the two alternative methods to lab experiments? <ul><li>Field Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative Method </li></ul>
  3. 3. 2. What is the comparative method designed to discover? <ul><li>The cause and effect relationships observable in Sociology </li></ul>
  4. 4. 3. The comparative method is also sometimes called …. <ul><li>A Thought Experiment </li></ul>
  5. 5. 4. Who are Rosenthal & Jacobson and which method did they use? <ul><li>Researchers who manipulated teachers’ expectations about pupil performance in order to discover the effects of labelling on achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Field Experiments. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 5. According to Durkheim, the reason for higher rates of suicide were due to high levels of integration of individuals in society. True or False? <ul><li>False. It is due to LOW levels of integration. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 6. What are three advantages of the comparative method over laboratory experiments? <ul><li>Avoids artificiality. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to study past events. </li></ul><ul><li>Poses no ethical problems such as harming or deceiving the subjects. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 7. Who studied the effects of labelling on achievement in the classroom? <ul><li>Rosenthal & Jacobson </li></ul>
  9. 9. 8. Who is best known for the ‘pseudopatient’ study and what was it about? <ul><li>David Rosenhan. </li></ul><ul><li>A team of 8 normal researchers admitted themselves to 1 Cali mental hospitals complaining they were hearing voices. All admitted and diagnosed with schizophrenia based solely on their claim—which was not provable. Once in hospital, they stopped complaining about voices and acted normally. Staff still treated them as if they were mentally ill. No one was caught out though some patients were suspicious. Leads to the idea that labelling—not actions/behaviour led them to being treated as if they were ill. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 9. Which method did Durkheim use in his study of suicide and what are the advantages of this method? <ul><li>Durkheim used the comparative method. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages are that he could use official statistics from the government which were reliable, secondary sources of quantitative data (secondary since he did not gather the statistics himself). It allowed Durkheim to study a larger time scale since the comparative method allows us to study past events (past suicides, from 2 years ago, 10 years ago, 15 years ago… as long as there are official statistics available he can create as large a study as he wishes)… no ethical problems given that there are no live participants in his research which may be harmed or deceived. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 10. What is the Hawthorne Effect? <ul><li>Lab settings are not natural so, any behaviour that occurs under these conditions is also unnatural or artificial. </li></ul><ul><li>If people do not act as they would in their normal settings, then the data is invalid because it is not reflective of their natural behaviour. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Return the Papers to their owners! Write ‘marked by…(insert YOUR name here)’ at the bottom please!