A2 Thomas Kuhn & Scientific Paradigms

  • 5,281 views
Uploaded on

 

More in: Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
5,281
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
87
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Thomas Kuhn & Scientific Paradigms
  • 2. Thomas Kuhn
    • b.1922- d.1996
    • American Physicist
    • Wrote extensively on history of science
    • Radically different view of what makes science unique.
    • Major Contribution: concept of 'Paradigm Shifts'
    • Heavily influenced Sociology
  • 3. Overview of Kuhn's Major Contributions
    • Science undergoes periodic "paradigm shifts" instead of progressing in a linear and continuous way.
    • These paradigm shifts open up new approaches to understanding that scientists would never have considered valid before.
    • Scientists can never divorce their subjective perspective from their work ; so our understanding of science can never rely on full "objectivity" - we must account for subjective perspectives as well .
  • 4. What is a Paradigm?
    • It is a basic framework of assumptions, principles, methods and techniques governing a scientific community and their science.
  • 5. What is a Paradigm Shift?
    • Kuhn argued that science does not progress by a linear method of gathering of new knowledge, but undergoes periodic revolutions , also called paradigm shifts in which the nature of scientific inquiry within a particular field is suddenly transformed.
  • 6. Kuhn's View of Paradigm Shifts & Science
    • Science cannot exist without a shared paradigm and until there is a shared consensus on a single paradigm there will only ever be rival schools of thought in the sciences.
    • Having said this, most of the time the paradigm goes unchallenged and scientist do what Kuhn calls Normal Science...
  • 7. Normal Science
    • In Normal Science, scientists work to solve puzzles.
    • This puzzle solving is governed by the scientists paradigm which not only defines the question, but to a large extent the answer as well.
    • Scientist restrict or 'tie their own hands' through their shared norms of the paradigm leaving them to 'fill in the blanks' or work out the nearest solution.
  • 8. Complex Jigsaw Puzzle
    • We know from the pic on the box what the solution should b e-- our job is to figure out how the pieces fit together to get the right result.
    • As Kuhn says “Everything but the details are known in advance. The Challenge is not to uncover the unknown but to obtain the known”
  • 9. Kuhn's View of Normal Science's Advantages
    • Great advantage of the paradigm is that it allows scientists to agree on the basics of their subject and get on with productive 'puzzle solving' work.
    • Gives them the chance to look at their field with exacting detail, thereby enlarging their picture of the natural world.
    • This contrasts DRASTICALLY with Popper's view of science.
  • 10. Popper Vs. Kuhn
    • Popper sees falsification as the unique feature of science.
    • Kuhn sees puzzle solving within a paradigm as the unique feature of science.
  • 11. Activity!
  • 12. 3 Teams Investigation
    • Group A: Prepare a brief presentation on Kuhn’s ' Scientific Revolution ' pg 266.
    • Group B: Prepare a brief presentation on Kuhn’s ' Implications for Society ' pg. 267
    • Use the book as a guide, but look for information elsewhere too.
    • Brief means about 5 minutes, with everyone in the group contributing.
    • Sugar paper visual required.
    • Need Help? See me!
  • 13. 3 Teams Investigation
    • Group C: Prepare a brief presentation on Popper.
    • *You can break up the topics using the headings in your books.
    • *Decide in advance who will cover each sub-section.
    • Use the book as a guide, but look for information elsewhere too.
    • Brief means about 5 minutes, with everyone in the group contributing.
    • Sugar paper visual required.
    • Need Help? See me!