Three Categories1. Teaching & doing research atuniversities2. Providing health or mentalservices3. Conducting research or applyingits finding in nonacademic settings
Psychological Research• Basic Psychology: Study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake• Applied Psychology: Study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also the application of psychological findings.
Psychological Practice• Goal is to understand & improve physical & mental health –Work in mental hospitals, general hospitals, clinics, schools, counseling centers, the criminal justice system & private practice
Psychotherapist Person who does psychotherapy; credentials and training vary Clinical Has a doctoral degree Psychologist Psychoanalyst Has specific training in psychoanalysis after an advanced degree (M.D./Ph.D.) Psychiatrist A physician (M.D.) with specialization in psychiatry Other Licensing requirements vary by state; generally at least an M.A. Can be social professionals worker (LCSW), counselor (MFCC)After Table 1.2 fromWade, C., & Tavris, C. (2002). Invitation to Psychology, 2nd Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Types of Private Practices• Counseling Psychologists –Generally help people deal with problems of every day life
• School psychologists –Work with parents, teachers, & students to enhance students’ performance & resolve emotional difficulties
• Clinical psychologists –Diagnose, treat, & study mental or emotional problems• Psychotherapist –Anyone who does any kind of psychotherapy –Not legally regulated
• Psychoanalyst –Practices one particular form of therapy (psychoanalysis) –Must have an advanced degree, receive specialized training & undergo extensive psychoanalysis yourself
• Psychiatrists –MD who has done a 3 year residency in psychiatry under supervision to learn to diagnose & treat mental disorders –More likely to focus on possible biological causes of mental disorders & often treat these problems with medication
• Licensed Clinical Social Workers• Licensing requirements vary by state but usually include a masters degree in psychology or social work & include 1-2 years of supervised experience
Psychology in the Community–Consult with companies to improve worker satisfaction & productivity–Establish programs to improve race relations & reduce ethnic tensions–Advise commissions on how pollution & noise affect mental health
• Do rehabilitation training for people who are physically or mentally disabled• Educate judges & juries about eye witness testimony• Assist the police in emergencies involving hostages or disturbed persons• Conduct public opinion surveys
• Run suicide prevention hotlines• Advise zoos on the care & training of animals• Help coaches improve the athletic performance of their teams