Neurons, the Action Potential, etc.

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Slides for our discussion of Cognitive Neuroscience by Gazzaniga, et al. chapter 2.

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Neurons, the Action Potential, etc.

  1. 1. Neurons
  2. 2. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Association neuron CellCell body body AxonDendrites 2 3Cell body Axon Motor neuron Axon 1Sensory Direction ofneuron conduction Dendrites
  3. 3. Dendrites
  4. 4. Axons
  5. 5. Figure 12-31 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  6. 6. Glial Cells
  7. 7. Roughly 3 timesmore glia than neurons
  8. 8. Astrocytes
  9. 9. StructuralGlycogen fuel reserve bufferMetabolic supportBlood–brain barrier?Transmitter uptake and releaseRegulation of ion concentration in the extracellular spaceModulation of synaptic transmissionVasomodulationPromotion of the myelinating activity of oligodendrocytesNervous system repairLong-term potentiation
  10. 10. Text
  11. 11. Maintain an appropriatechemical environmentfor neuronal signaling
  12. 12. Microglia
  13. 13. Macrophagesof the CNS
  14. 14. ScavengingPhagocytosisCytotoxicityAntigen presentationSynaptic strippingPromotion of repairExtracellular signaling
  15. 15. Oligodendrocytes
  16. 16. A.M. BUTT, K. COLQUHOUN, AND M. BERRY
  17. 17. Schwann Cells
  18. 18. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Dendrites Schwann cell Schwann cell Axon Nucleus Axon SchwannMyelin cellsheath Axon Myelin sheath
  19. 19. Myelin
  20. 20. “...fatty substance thatsurrounds the axonsof many neurons.”
  21. 21. “...wrapping their cell membranesaround the axon in a concentricmanner.”
  22. 22. Water: 40%Remainder: 70 - 85% Lipids 15 - 30% Proteins
  23. 23. Action Potential
  24. 24. MembraneDepolarization
  25. 25. Figure 12-33 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  26. 26. Voltage-GatesSodium Channels
  27. 27. Figure 12-34 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  28. 28. Figure 12-35 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  29. 29. MembraneRepolarization
  30. 30. Voltage-GatedPotassium Channels
  31. 31. Figure 12-29 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  32. 32. Figure 12-39b Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  33. 33. SynapticTransmission
  34. 34. Figure 12-40a Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  35. 35. Figure 12-40b Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  36. 36. Voltage-GatedCalcium Channels
  37. 37. Figure 12-41 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  38. 38. Figure 12-42 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  39. 39. Figure 5.14 Molecular mechanisms of exocytosis during neurotransmitter release (Part 2)
  40. 40. Figure 5.9 Local recycling of synaptic vesicles in presynaptic terminals (Part 2)
  41. 41. Neurotransmitters
  42. 42. Excitatory
  43. 43. Inhibitory
  44. 44. Figure 5.3 Sequence of events involved in transmission at a typical chemical synapse
  45. 45. Figure 5.23 Events from neurotransmitter release to postsynaptic excitation or inhibition
  46. 46. Figure 12-45b Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  47. 47. Figure 12-45a Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  48. 48. NeurotransmitterBiosynthesis
  49. 49. Small Molecules
  50. 50. Figure 5.5 Metabolism of small-molecule and peptide transmitters (Part 1)
  51. 51. Figure 5.5 Metabolism of small-molecule and peptide transmitters (Part 2)
  52. 52. Neuropeptides(Peptide Neurotransmitters)
  53. 53. β-endorphin
  54. 54. Figure 5.5 Metabolism of small-molecule and peptide transmitters (Part 3)
  55. 55. Figure 5.5 Metabolism of small-molecule and peptide transmitters (Part 4)
  56. 56. Electrical Synapses
  57. 57. Figure 5.1 Structure of electrical synapses (Part 1)
  58. 58. Gap Junctions
  59. 59. Figure 5.1 Structure of electrical synapses (Part 3)
  60. 60. Figure 5.1 Structure of electrical synapses (Part 2)
  61. 61. Axon
  62. 62. Glial Cell Axon
  63. 63. Axon
  64. 64. Myelin Axon

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