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Heredity

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  • 1. How Lifecontinues
  • 2. Chapter 11 Chapter 10
  • 3. Heredity
  • 4. “...tendency for traitsto be passed fromparent to offspring.”
  • 5. Traits
  • 6. “...alternative forms ofa character,or heritable feature.”
  • 7. TABLE 10.1 SEVEN CHARACTERS MENDEL STUDIED IN HIS EXPERIMENTS Character F2 Generation Dominant Form × Recessive Form Dominant: Recessive Ratio Purple flowers × White fowers 705:224 3.15:1 (3/4:1/4) Yellow seeds × Green seeds 6,022:2,001 3.01:1 (3/4:1/4) Round seeds × Wrinkled seeds 5,474:1,850 2.96:1 (3/4:1/4) Green pods × Yellow pods 428:152 2.82:1 (3/4:1/4) Inflated pods × Constricted pods 882:299 2.95:1 (3/4:1/4) Axial flowers × Terminal flowers 651:207 3.14:1 (3/4:1/4) Tall plants × Dwarf plants 787:277 2.84:1 (3/4:1/4)
  • 8. Can we figure outif a purple-flowering plantis Pp or PP?
  • 9. Testcross
  • 10. Mendel’sTheory of Heredity
  • 11. Parents do not transmittraits directly; theytransmit trait informationin the form of “factors”Each parent has two copiesof a trait factor
  • 12. Alternative forms of a factor(alleles) lead to alternativetraitsThe two alleles an individualhas do not affect each otherThe presence of an alleledoes not guarantee that atrait will be expressed
  • 13. For a certain trait,an individual can be...Homozygoushave two alleles that are the sameHeterozygoushave two alleles that are different
  • 14. Mendel’sLaw of Segregation
  • 15. Two alleles of a traitseparate during theformation of gametes;half the gametes carry oneand half carry the other
  • 16. Mendel’sLaw of IndependentAssortment
  • 17. Inheritance of one traitdoes not influence theinheritance of another trait
  • 18. Many traits exhibitMendelian inheritance
  • 19. Genes
  • 20. The Central Dogma
  • 21. Phenotype
  • 22. Genotype
  • 23. Mendel’sTheory of Heredity
  • 24. Parents do not transmittraits directly; theytransmit trait informationin the form of genesEach parent has two copiesof a trait gene
  • 25. Alleles, alternative forms ofa gene, lead to alternativetraitsThe two alleles an individualhas do not affect each otherThe presence of an alleledoes not guarantee that atrait will be expressed
  • 26. Chromosomes
  • 27. Section 9.3Section 8.3
  • 28. Fig. 10.6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Locus for first Locus for second gene containing gene containing allele P or p allele Y or y Paternal homologue P Y Heterozygous Homozygous Homologous genotype Pp genotype YY chromosomes p Y Maternal homologue
  • 29. Two kinds:AutosomesSex Chromosomes
  • 30. Sickle-CellDisease
  • 31. Autosomal Recessive
  • 32. Huntington’s Disease
  • 33. Autosomal Dominant
  • 34. Mitosis
  • 35. The division of cells
  • 36. Co 8
  • 37. Section 9.4Section 8.4
  • 38. Meiosis
  • 39. The formationof gametes
  • 40. Sections 9.1 - 9.4Sections 8.1 - 8.4
  • 41. Page 183
  • 42. Many traits do not followMendelian Inheritance
  • 43. Sex-Linked Traits
  • 44. http://www.uic.edu/classes/bms/bms655/lesson6.html
  • 45. X-Linked Dominant
  • 46. X-Linked Dominant[A] mode of genetic inheritance by whicha dominant gene is carried on the Xchromosome. As an inheritance pattern, it is lesscommon than the X-linked recessive type. Inmedicine, X-linked dominant inheritanceindicates that a gene responsible for a geneticdisorder is located on the X chromosome, andonly one copy of the allele is sufficient to causethe disorder when inherited from a parent whohas the disorder. http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/X-linked_dominant
  • 47. http://www.uic.edu/classes/bms/bms655/lesson7.html
  • 48. X-Linked Recessive
  • 49. X-Linked Recessive[A] mode of inheritance in which a mutation in agene on the X chromosome causes the phenotypeto be expressed (1) in males… and (2) in femaleswho are homozygous for the gene mutation... X-linked inheritance means that the gene causing the trait or the disorder is located on the X chromosome. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-linked_recessive
  • 50. X-Linked RecessiveRed-Green Color BlindnessHemophilia AHemophilia BDuchene Muscular DystrophyBecker’s Muscular Dystrophy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-linked_recessive_inheritance
  • 51. Polygenic Inheritance
  • 52. “When multiple genesact together to influencea character such asheight or weight...”
  • 53. Continuous Variation
  • 54. Pleiotropic
  • 55. “Often, an individualallele has more than oneeffect on the phenotype.”
  • 56. Sickle-Cell Disease
  • 57. Cystic Fibrosis
  • 58. Incomplete Dominance
  • 59. “...a heterozygousphenotype that isintermediate betweenthose of the parents.”
  • 60. Epistasis
  • 61. “...an interactionbetween the products oftwo genes in which oneof the genes modifies thephenotypic expressionproduced by the other.”
  • 62. Codominance
  • 63. “...the effects of bothalleles are expressed.”
  • 64. Environmental Effects
  • 65. Linkage
  • 66. HomologousRecombination
  • 67. Mendel’sLaw of IndependentAssortment
  • 68. ChromosomalDisorders
  • 69. Somatic cells are diploid
  • 70. Gametes are monoploid
  • 71. Nondisjunction
  • 72. “The failure ofchromosomes toseparate correctlyduring meiosis I or II...”
  • 73. Figure 10.24 Nondisjunction in anaphase I Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Metaphase l Anaphase l Nondisjunction: homologous chromosomes fail to separate Metaphase ll 108 Results in four gametes: two are n+1 and two are n–1
  • 74. Aneuploidy
  • 75. “...an abnormal numberof chromosomes.”
  • 76. Down Syndrometrisomy 21
  • 77. Nondisjunctionof sex chromosomes
  • 78. Female XX Nondisjunction XX O Eggs XXX XOMale Female X Female (triple X) (Turner syndrome)XY Sperm Y XXY OY Male (Klinefelter Nonviable syndrome) 113