How Lifecontinues
Chapter 11             Chapter 10
Heredity
“...tendency for traitsto be passed fromparent to offspring.”
Traits
“...alternative forms ofa character,or heritable feature.”
TABLE 10.1   SEVEN CHARACTERS MENDEL STUDIED IN HIS EXPERIMENTS                                Character                  ...
Can we figure outif a purple-flowering plantis Pp or PP?
Testcross
Mendel’sTheory of Heredity
Parents do not transmittraits directly; theytransmit trait informationin the form of “factors”Each parent has two copiesof...
Alternative forms of a factor(alleles) lead to alternativetraitsThe two alleles an individualhas do not affect each otherT...
For a certain trait,an individual can be...Homozygoushave two alleles that are the sameHeterozygoushave two alleles that a...
Mendel’sLaw of Segregation
Two alleles of a traitseparate during theformation of gametes;half the gametes carry oneand half carry the other
Mendel’sLaw of IndependentAssortment
Inheritance of one traitdoes not influence theinheritance of another trait
Many traits exhibitMendelian inheritance
Genes
The Central Dogma
Phenotype
Genotype
Mendel’sTheory of Heredity
Parents do not transmittraits directly; theytransmit trait informationin the form of genesEach parent has two copiesof a t...
Alleles, alternative forms ofa gene, lead to alternativetraitsThe two alleles an individualhas do not affect each otherThe...
Chromosomes
Section 9.3Section 8.3
Fig. 10.6                         Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or disp...
Two kinds:AutosomesSex Chromosomes
Sickle-CellDisease
Autosomal Recessive
Huntington’s Disease
Autosomal Dominant
Mitosis
The division of cells
Co 8
Section 9.4Section 8.4
Meiosis
The formationof gametes
Sections 9.1 - 9.4Sections 8.1 - 8.4
Page 183
Many traits do not followMendelian Inheritance
Sex-Linked Traits
http://www.uic.edu/classes/bms/bms655/lesson6.html
X-Linked Dominant
X-Linked Dominant[A] mode of genetic inheritance by whicha dominant gene is carried on the Xchromosome. As an inheritance ...
http://www.uic.edu/classes/bms/bms655/lesson7.html
X-Linked Recessive
X-Linked Recessive[A] mode of inheritance in which a mutation in agene on the X chromosome causes the phenotypeto be expre...
X-Linked RecessiveRed-Green Color BlindnessHemophilia AHemophilia BDuchene Muscular DystrophyBecker’s Muscular Dystrophy  ...
Polygenic Inheritance
“When multiple genesact together to influencea character such asheight or weight...”
Continuous Variation
Pleiotropic
“Often, an individualallele has more than oneeffect on the phenotype.”
Sickle-Cell Disease
Cystic Fibrosis
Incomplete Dominance
“...a heterozygousphenotype that isintermediate betweenthose of the parents.”
Epistasis
“...an interactionbetween the products oftwo genes in which oneof the genes modifies thephenotypic expressionproduced by t...
Codominance
“...the effects of bothalleles are expressed.”
Environmental Effects
Linkage
HomologousRecombination
Mendel’sLaw of IndependentAssortment
ChromosomalDisorders
Somatic cells are diploid
Gametes are monoploid
Nondisjunction
“The failure ofchromosomes toseparate correctlyduring meiosis I or II...”
Figure 10.24 Nondisjunction in anaphase I          Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for rep...
Aneuploidy
“...an abnormal numberof chromosomes.”
Down Syndrometrisomy 21
Nondisjunctionof sex chromosomes
Female        XX                      Nondisjunction                 XX                      O                            ...
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Heredity

  1. 1. How Lifecontinues
  2. 2. Chapter 11 Chapter 10
  3. 3. Heredity
  4. 4. “...tendency for traitsto be passed fromparent to offspring.”
  5. 5. Traits
  6. 6. “...alternative forms ofa character,or heritable feature.”
  7. 7. TABLE 10.1 SEVEN CHARACTERS MENDEL STUDIED IN HIS EXPERIMENTS Character F2 Generation Dominant Form × Recessive Form Dominant: Recessive Ratio Purple flowers × White fowers 705:224 3.15:1 (3/4:1/4) Yellow seeds × Green seeds 6,022:2,001 3.01:1 (3/4:1/4) Round seeds × Wrinkled seeds 5,474:1,850 2.96:1 (3/4:1/4) Green pods × Yellow pods 428:152 2.82:1 (3/4:1/4) Inflated pods × Constricted pods 882:299 2.95:1 (3/4:1/4) Axial flowers × Terminal flowers 651:207 3.14:1 (3/4:1/4) Tall plants × Dwarf plants 787:277 2.84:1 (3/4:1/4)
  8. 8. Can we figure outif a purple-flowering plantis Pp or PP?
  9. 9. Testcross
  10. 10. Mendel’sTheory of Heredity
  11. 11. Parents do not transmittraits directly; theytransmit trait informationin the form of “factors”Each parent has two copiesof a trait factor
  12. 12. Alternative forms of a factor(alleles) lead to alternativetraitsThe two alleles an individualhas do not affect each otherThe presence of an alleledoes not guarantee that atrait will be expressed
  13. 13. For a certain trait,an individual can be...Homozygoushave two alleles that are the sameHeterozygoushave two alleles that are different
  14. 14. Mendel’sLaw of Segregation
  15. 15. Two alleles of a traitseparate during theformation of gametes;half the gametes carry oneand half carry the other
  16. 16. Mendel’sLaw of IndependentAssortment
  17. 17. Inheritance of one traitdoes not influence theinheritance of another trait
  18. 18. Many traits exhibitMendelian inheritance
  19. 19. Genes
  20. 20. The Central Dogma
  21. 21. Phenotype
  22. 22. Genotype
  23. 23. Mendel’sTheory of Heredity
  24. 24. Parents do not transmittraits directly; theytransmit trait informationin the form of genesEach parent has two copiesof a trait gene
  25. 25. Alleles, alternative forms ofa gene, lead to alternativetraitsThe two alleles an individualhas do not affect each otherThe presence of an alleledoes not guarantee that atrait will be expressed
  26. 26. Chromosomes
  27. 27. Section 9.3Section 8.3
  28. 28. Fig. 10.6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Locus for first Locus for second gene containing gene containing allele P or p allele Y or y Paternal homologue P Y Heterozygous Homozygous Homologous genotype Pp genotype YY chromosomes p Y Maternal homologue
  29. 29. Two kinds:AutosomesSex Chromosomes
  30. 30. Sickle-CellDisease
  31. 31. Autosomal Recessive
  32. 32. Huntington’s Disease
  33. 33. Autosomal Dominant
  34. 34. Mitosis
  35. 35. The division of cells
  36. 36. Co 8
  37. 37. Section 9.4Section 8.4
  38. 38. Meiosis
  39. 39. The formationof gametes
  40. 40. Sections 9.1 - 9.4Sections 8.1 - 8.4
  41. 41. Page 183
  42. 42. Many traits do not followMendelian Inheritance
  43. 43. Sex-Linked Traits
  44. 44. http://www.uic.edu/classes/bms/bms655/lesson6.html
  45. 45. X-Linked Dominant
  46. 46. X-Linked Dominant[A] mode of genetic inheritance by whicha dominant gene is carried on the Xchromosome. As an inheritance pattern, it is lesscommon than the X-linked recessive type. Inmedicine, X-linked dominant inheritanceindicates that a gene responsible for a geneticdisorder is located on the X chromosome, andonly one copy of the allele is sufficient to causethe disorder when inherited from a parent whohas the disorder. http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/X-linked_dominant
  47. 47. http://www.uic.edu/classes/bms/bms655/lesson7.html
  48. 48. X-Linked Recessive
  49. 49. X-Linked Recessive[A] mode of inheritance in which a mutation in agene on the X chromosome causes the phenotypeto be expressed (1) in males… and (2) in femaleswho are homozygous for the gene mutation... X-linked inheritance means that the gene causing the trait or the disorder is located on the X chromosome. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-linked_recessive
  50. 50. X-Linked RecessiveRed-Green Color BlindnessHemophilia AHemophilia BDuchene Muscular DystrophyBecker’s Muscular Dystrophy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-linked_recessive_inheritance
  51. 51. Polygenic Inheritance
  52. 52. “When multiple genesact together to influencea character such asheight or weight...”
  53. 53. Continuous Variation
  54. 54. Pleiotropic
  55. 55. “Often, an individualallele has more than oneeffect on the phenotype.”
  56. 56. Sickle-Cell Disease
  57. 57. Cystic Fibrosis
  58. 58. Incomplete Dominance
  59. 59. “...a heterozygousphenotype that isintermediate betweenthose of the parents.”
  60. 60. Epistasis
  61. 61. “...an interactionbetween the products oftwo genes in which oneof the genes modifies thephenotypic expressionproduced by the other.”
  62. 62. Codominance
  63. 63. “...the effects of bothalleles are expressed.”
  64. 64. Environmental Effects
  65. 65. Linkage
  66. 66. HomologousRecombination
  67. 67. Mendel’sLaw of IndependentAssortment
  68. 68. ChromosomalDisorders
  69. 69. Somatic cells are diploid
  70. 70. Gametes are monoploid
  71. 71. Nondisjunction
  72. 72. “The failure ofchromosomes toseparate correctlyduring meiosis I or II...”
  73. 73. Figure 10.24 Nondisjunction in anaphase I Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Metaphase l Anaphase l Nondisjunction: homologous chromosomes fail to separate Metaphase ll 108 Results in four gametes: two are n+1 and two are n–1
  74. 74. Aneuploidy
  75. 75. “...an abnormal numberof chromosomes.”
  76. 76. Down Syndrometrisomy 21
  77. 77. Nondisjunctionof sex chromosomes
  78. 78. Female XX Nondisjunction XX O Eggs XXX XOMale Female X Female (triple X) (Turner syndrome)XY Sperm Y XXY OY Male (Klinefelter Nonviable syndrome) 113
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