Dna and chromosome structure

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Slides for discussion of Essential Cell Biology chapter 5.

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Dna and chromosome structure

  1. 1. Cell & MolecularBiology
  2. 2. Genes
  3. 3. Chapter 5
  4. 4. DNA Structure
  5. 5. The Double Helixand Base Pairing
  6. 6. Figure 5-6a Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  7. 7. Figure 5-6b Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  8. 8. Figure 5-7 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  9. 9. Informationin a linear sequence
  10. 10. Figure 5-8 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  11. 11. Figure 5-9 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  12. 12. Genes
  13. 13. “A gene is usually defined asa segment of DNAthat contains instructionsfor making a particular protein.”
  14. 14. Genome
  15. 15. “The complete set of informationin an organism’s DNA...”
  16. 16. Figure 5-10 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  17. 17. Chromosomes
  18. 18. Figure 5-11 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  19. 19. Human somatic cellshave 23 pairs ofhomologous chromosomes
  20. 20. Figure 5-10 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  21. 21. We often look atmitotic chromosomes
  22. 22. Figure 5-17 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  23. 23. But interphase chromosomesare “less compact”
  24. 24. Figure 5-15 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  25. 25. Figure 5-18 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  26. 26. Chromatin
  27. 27. Figure 5-19 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  28. 28. “The complex ofDNA and proteins...”
  29. 29. Figure 5-21 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  30. 30. Chromosomal Structure
  31. 31. Linear information,highly structured
  32. 32. Figure 5-21 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  33. 33. Nucleosomes
  34. 34. Histones
  35. 35. Figure 5-23 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  36. 36. Chromosome Packing
  37. 37. Figure 5-25 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  38. 38. http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Histone_Protein_Structure.html
  39. 39. http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Histone_Protein_Structure.html
  40. 40. http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Histone_Protein_Structure.html
  41. 41. Changing Nucleosome Structure
  42. 42. Chromatin-Remodeling Complexes
  43. 43. Figure 5-27a Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  44. 44. Figure 5-27b Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  45. 45. Chemical Modification of Histones
  46. 46. Acetyl, methyl and phosphate groupscan be added to or removed fromhistone tails.
  47. 47. Figure 5-28a Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  48. 48. Figure 5-28b Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  49. 49. These modifications can affect30-nm chromatin fiber stabilityand the ability of histone tailsto bind specific proteins.
  50. 50. Heterochromatin
  51. 51. “The most highly condensed formof interphase chromatin...”
  52. 52. Figure 5-29 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  53. 53. Figure 5-30 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  54. 54. Euchromatin
  55. 55. “...chromatin that existsin a more extended state...”
  56. 56. Figure 5-31 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  57. 57. Figure 5-31 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)

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