Biological Macroolecules
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
“Life is just a kind of chemistry,of sufficient complexityto permit reproduction and evolution.”                          ...
Polymers
a substance that hasa molecular structureconsisting chiefly or entirely ofa large number of similar unitsbonded together  ...
Biological Polymers
ProteinsNucleic AcidsCarbohydratesLipids
Dehydration Synthesis
Hydrolysis
Proteins
Amino Acids
Figure 4-3 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
(b) Transport proteins: Red blood cells contain the  (a) Enzymes: Globular proteins called enzymes          protein hemogl...
Table 4-1 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
Form-FunctionRelationship
ProteinStructureand Folding
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.                              ...
HierarchicalOrganization
Denaturation
On Food and CookingHarold McGee
NucleicAcids
Nucleotides
Page 57          Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.             ...
Figure 4.12
Base Pairing
Page68_01
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
GlucoseGalactoseFructose
Disaccharides
MaltoseSucroseLactose
Polysaccharides
energy storagein plantsStarch      {  amylose         amylopectin
energy storagein animalsGlycogen
structurefor plantsCellulose
structurein animalsChitin
Lipids
Hydrophobic substancescan be dissolved in lipids.
Fatty Acids
Saturated
Unsaturated
Glycerol
Glycerol
TriacylglycerideFat Molecule
Long-TermEnergy Storage
Phospholipids
Calories per gramCarbohydrate        4Protein             4Fat                 9
On Food and CookingHarold McGee
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Biological macromolecules
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Biological macromolecules

  1. 1. Biological Macroolecules
  2. 2. Chapter 3
  3. 3. Chapter 4
  4. 4. “Life is just a kind of chemistry,of sufficient complexityto permit reproduction and evolution.” Cosmos: A Personal Voyage
  5. 5. Polymers
  6. 6. a substance that hasa molecular structureconsisting chiefly or entirely ofa large number of similar unitsbonded together New Oxford American Dictionary
  7. 7. Biological Polymers
  8. 8. ProteinsNucleic AcidsCarbohydratesLipids
  9. 9. Dehydration Synthesis
  10. 10. Hydrolysis
  11. 11. Proteins
  12. 12. Amino Acids
  13. 13. Figure 4-3 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  14. 14. (b) Transport proteins: Red blood cells contain the (a) Enzymes: Globular proteins called enzymes protein hemoglobin, which transports oxygen and play a key role in many chemical reactions. carbon dioxide in the body. (d) Structural proteins: Keratin forms hair, nails, (c) Structural proteins: Collagen feathers, and components of horns. Is present in bones, tendons, and cartilage.(e) Defensive proteins: White (f) Contractile proteins: Proteinsblood cells destroy cells without called act in and myosin arethe proper identity proteins and present in muscles.make antibody proteins thatattack invaders.
  15. 15. Table 4-1 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  16. 16. Form-FunctionRelationship
  17. 17. ProteinStructureand Folding
  18. 18. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Primary structure Amino acids H NSecondary Cstructure C N C N C O C H O C H N C C N O O C H H C N C N C C O O H C H β-pleated sheet N C C O N O C α-helix C O Tertiary structure Quaternary structure
  19. 19. HierarchicalOrganization
  20. 20. Denaturation
  21. 21. On Food and CookingHarold McGee
  22. 22. NucleicAcids
  23. 23. Nucleotides
  24. 24. Page 57 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. P P
  25. 25. Figure 4.12
  26. 26. Base Pairing
  27. 27. Page68_01
  28. 28. Carbohydrates
  29. 29. Monosaccharides
  30. 30. GlucoseGalactoseFructose
  31. 31. Disaccharides
  32. 32. MaltoseSucroseLactose
  33. 33. Polysaccharides
  34. 34. energy storagein plantsStarch { amylose amylopectin
  35. 35. energy storagein animalsGlycogen
  36. 36. structurefor plantsCellulose
  37. 37. structurein animalsChitin
  38. 38. Lipids
  39. 39. Hydrophobic substancescan be dissolved in lipids.
  40. 40. Fatty Acids
  41. 41. Saturated
  42. 42. Unsaturated
  43. 43. Glycerol
  44. 44. Glycerol
  45. 45. TriacylglycerideFat Molecule
  46. 46. Long-TermEnergy Storage
  47. 47. Phospholipids
  48. 48. Calories per gramCarbohydrate 4Protein 4Fat 9
  49. 49. On Food and CookingHarold McGee

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