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Behavior, part 1


Slides for discussion of The Living World, 7th edition chapter 37, adapted from a compilation by Amy.

Slides for discussion of The Living World, 7th edition chapter 37, adapted from a compilation by Amy.

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  • 1. Behavior
  • 2. What organisms do
  • 3. 39.1-8, 10-1237.1-8, 10-12
  • 4. Behavior is shapedby evolution,like physical traits
  • 5. Behavior is alsoflexible enoughto change withthe environment
  • 6. Behavior iswidespread
  • 7. Proximate Cause
  • 8. Genetic orphysiologicalmechanismfor a behavior
  • 9. Ultimate Cause
  • 10. Evolutionary, adaptivecause for a behavior
  • 11. Human tasteand food choice
  • 12. Proximate causesWhat regulates hunger cravings?
  • 13. Ghrelin
  • 14. a hormone that stimulates hungerproduced by cells in the stomachand pancreas
  • 15. Ghrelin levelincreases before mealsand decreases after meals Time of day
  • 16. Dopamine Pleasure
  • 17. Ultimate causes:Why did we evolve to like certain foods?
  • 18. Amount of Sodium in Diet Late Paleolithic Contemporary AmericanSodium (mg) 700 2300-6900
  • 19. Proximate causeHormones trigger pleasure in our brainwhen eating certain foodsUltimate causeHumans evolved to prefer salty foodin a low sodium environment
  • 20. Nature vs Nurture
  • 21. Nature:- Instinctive/Innate Behaviors- Behavioral Genetics
  • 22. Fixed Action Patternfixed response to a stimulus
  • 23. KonradLorenz
  • 24. Stimulus:egg outsideof nestFixed ActionPattern:roll into nest
  • 25. Stimulus:egg objectoutside ofnestFixed ActionPattern:roll into nest
  • 26. Most behavioris not fixed, butcan still have agenetic basis
  • 27. fosB gene controlsmaternal care in mice Mutant fosB allelle Normal fosB allele
  • 28. 38
  • 29. Twin Studies
  • 30. Studies of identical twins show strangebehavioral coincidences:“Springer and Lewis found they had eachmarried and divorced a woman named Lindaand remarried a Betty. They shared interestsin mechanical drawing and carpentry; theirfavorite school subject had been math, theirleast favorite, spelling. They both had sonswhom one named James Alan and the othernamed James Allan. And they both owneddogs which they named Toy.” University of Minnesota twin study, Bouchard et al
  • 31. Studies of identical twins show strangebehavioral coincidences:“Oskar was brought up Catholic in Germanyand joined the Hitler Youth. Jack was raised aJew and lived for a time in Israel. Yet they hadsimilar speech and thought patterns, similargaits, a taste for spicy foods and commonpeculiarities such as flushing the toilet beforethey used it.”
  • 32. MAOA “warrior” gene
  • 33. MonoamineOxidase A
  • 34. Enzyme breaks down neurotransmittersin the brain (including adrenaline)People with an allele for low MAOA activitytend to respond more aggressively when provoked
  • 35. Nurture:Learning
  • 36. Learning:from simple to complex
  • 37. Habituationrepeated stimuliproduce weaker responses
  • 38. Sensitizationrepeated stimuliproduce stronger responses
  • 39. Classical Conditioning
  • 40. associating behaviorwith a new stimuli
  • 41. Operant Conditioning
  • 42. Associating behaviorwith a reward or punishment
  • 43. Imprinting
  • 44. Filial Imprinting:offspring form innate social attachments
  • 45. Cognition
  • 46. Can non-human animals think?
  • 47. NaturevsNurture
  • 48. Naturevs andNurture
  • 49. White-crownedsparrow (WCS)
  • 50. In lab experiments,newly hatched WCS maleswere played: • Normal song • No song • Wrong song Song sparrow songPeter Marler’s research
  • 51. In lab experiments,newly hatched WCS maleswere played:• Normal song: sang correct song• No song: sang poorly developed version of WCS song• Wrong song: sang poorly developed version of WCS song
  • 52. MAOA “warrior” genePeople with low MAOA activitywho experienced a traumatic event as a childwere more likely to exhibit antisocial, violentbehavior as adultsPeople with low MAOA activitywho did not experience a traumatic eventwere not any more likely to be violent thancontrol groups