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Basic Chemistry

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Slides for class covering material from chapter 2 of The Living World, 7th edition.

Slides for class covering material from chapter 2 of The Living World, 7th edition.

Published in: Education, Technology

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Transcript

  • 1. Chemistry
  • 2. Chapter 2
  • 3. Chapter 3
  • 4. “The beauty of a living thingis not the atoms that go into itbut the way those atomsare put together...” Cosmos: A Personal Voyage
  • 5. The HuberExperiments,volume 1http://youtu.be/xf5QQ3UADRQ
  • 6. Atoms
  • 7. The smallest constituentof matter that haschemical properties.
  • 8. CosmosPBS, 1980
  • 9. ProtonsNeutronsElectrons
  • 10. Isotopes
  • 11. Isotopes of an element have the samechemical properties but different nuclearproperties.
  • 12. The neutron number has drastic effectson nuclear properties, but its effect onchemical properties is negligible inmost elements, and still quite small in the caseof the very lightest elements, where it does matterslightly. http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Isotopes
  • 13. Uranium-235Uranium-238
  • 14. Electrons arearranged into shells.
  • 15. Electrons in theoutermost shell determinethe chemical properties ofthe atom. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Electron_shell
  • 16. Figure 2-7 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  • 17. Ions
  • 18. Chemical Substances
  • 19. “...a form of matter that has constantchemical composition and characteristicproperties.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Chemical_substance
  • 20. ChemicalBonds
  • 21. Outer-Shell Electrons
  • 22. The Octet Rule
  • 23. Na?Cl?H?O?K?O? Mg?Cl? Mg?Br? C?O? C?S? Ca? Cl?
  • 24. Covalent bond –H – H H2, hydrogen gas Shared electrons
  • 25. H2O, water
  • 26. NaClH2OK2O MgCl2 MgBr2 CO2 / CO CS2 CaCl2
  • 27. IonicBonds
  • 28. “...formed through anelectrostatic interaction betweentwo oppositely charged ions.” http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Ionic_bond
  • 29. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_oxide
  • 30. CovalentBonds
  • 31. a pair of shared electrons
  • 32. Molecules
  • 33. Groups of atomsheld togetherby covalent bonds.
  • 34. Covalent bond – H H H H – Hydrogen gas (H2) Shared electrons Single H covalent bond H – – – – – –H C H H C H – – – – – H HMethane gas (CH4) Double covalent bond – – – – – – – – O O O – O – – – 61 Oxygen gas (O2) – – – –
  • 35. Polar Covalent Bonds
  • 36. Intermolecular Forces
  • 37. van der Waals forces
  • 38. Hydrogen Bonds
  • 39. A hydrogen bond is the attractiveinteraction of a hydrogen atom with anelectronegative atom, such as nitrogen,oxygen or fluorine, that comes fromanother molecule or chemical group. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hydrogen_bond
  • 40. Properties of Water
  • 41. HydrophilicSubstances
  • 42. ethanol
  • 43. Cohesion
  • 44. Adhesion
  • 45. HydrophobicSubstances
  • 46. LifeBBC, 2009
  • 47. Boiling Point
  • 48. Single H covalent bond – – O – – – –H C H – – – H H – – H Single covalent bonds
  • 49. Acids and Bases
  • 50. H2O OH- + H+Water Hydroxide Hydrogen Ion
  • 51. pH
  • 52. pH = -log [H+]
  • 53. Pure Water[H+] = 0.0000001 M = 10 -7 MpH = 7
  • 54. M = moles / liter1 mole = 6.022 x 1023 atoms or molecules
  • 55. Black Coffee[H+] = 0.00001 M = 10 -5 MpH = 5
  • 56. Pure WaterpH = 7Black CoffeepH = 5
  • 57. Pure Water[H+] = 0.0000001 M = 10 -7 MpH = 7Black Coffee[H+] = 0.00001 M = 10 -5 MpH = 5
  • 58. Acids
  • 59. “Any substance thatdissociates in waterto increasethe concentration of H+...”
  • 60. Do acids raise or lowerthe pH value of a solution?
  • 61. Aqueous AcidsandAcidic Solutions
  • 62. pH < 7
  • 63. Bases
  • 64. “A substance thatcombines with H+when dissolved in water...”
  • 65. Do bases raise or lowerthe pH value of a solution?
  • 66. Aqueous BasesandBasic Solutions
  • 67. pH > 7
  • 68. Buffers
  • 69. a substance thattakes up or releases H+ intosolution as the[H+] of the solution changes
  • 70. Homeostasis