Smart antenna systems
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  • 1. PRESENTATION BY apoorva k. Shetti 2bu09ec006 UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Lect. AMARJEETSINGH THAKUR SMART ANTENNAS PRESENTED BY Mr. apoorva k. Shetti
  • 2. CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  TYPES OF SMART ANTENNAS  COMPARISION BETWEEN SWITCHED BEAM AND ADAPTIVE ARRAY  SDMA(SPACE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS)  ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES  APPLICATION  CONCLUSION  REFERENCES
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Antenna is electrical device which converts electric power into electromagnetic waves or vice versa. Omni directional and directional antennas. Multipath and Co channel Interference. Figure A:Omni directional antenna B. Directional antenna coverage pattern coverage pattern
  • 4. What is SMART ANTENNA ?  A smart antenna consists of an antenna array, that changes the array pattern in response to signal environment to improve the performance of a communication system. Figure : Smart antenna analogy with human
  • 5. THE AIM OF SMART ANTENNA SYSTEM  To maximize the antenna gain in the desired direction.  To minimize the gain in directions of interferers.
  • 6. TYPES OF SMART ANTENNA  SWITCHED BEAM ANTENNA - a finite number of fixed ,predefined patterns.  ADAPTIVE ARRAY ANTENNA - an infinite number of patterns (scenario based) that are adjusted in real time.
  • 7. SWITCHED BEAM ANTENNAS  This systems form multiple fixed beams with heightened sensitivity in particular directions.  When incoming signal detected it determines the beam which is best aligned based on SOI and switches to that beam to communicate with user.  As the mobile unit moves throughout the cell, the switched- beam system detects the signal strength and continually switches the beams as necessary.
  • 8. Contd… Figure- Switched Beam System Coverage Patterns (Sectors)  It subdivides sector into many narrow beams, then each beam is considered as individual sector serving user or group of users.
  • 9. Contd... Figure : Block diagram of Switched beam systems  PSN, which forms multiple beams looking in certain directions.  RF Switch actuates the right beam in the desired direction.
  • 10. Contd…  The selection of right beam is made by control logic which is governed by an algorithm.  The algorithm which scans all the beams and selects the one strongest receiving signal based on a measurement made by the detector.  The overall goal of the switched-beam system is to increase the gain according to the location of the user.
  • 11. ADAPTIVE ARRAY ANTENNAS  Systems are really smart because they are able to dynamically react to the changing RF environment with its infinite scenario based patterns.  They can direct the main beam toward the SOI(Signal Of Interest) while suppressing the antenna pattern in the direction of the interferers.  It can customize an appropriate radiation pattern for each individual user.  Dynamically adjust the antenna pattern to enhance reception while minimizing or fully rejecting interference .
  • 12. Contd…  This provides optimal gain while simultaneously identifying, tracking, and minimizing interfering signals. Figure- Adaptive Array System Coverage Pattern
  • 13. Contd… Figure : Block diagram of Adaptive array systems  D/C : Converts from RF to IF.  ADC : Converts Analog to Digital for further processing.  W’s : It contains amplification and phase information
  • 14. SPACE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS  Among the most sophisticated utilization of smart antenna technology.  It employs advanced technique to, in effect, locate and track fixed and mobile terminals, adaptively steering transmission signal toward user and interferers.  Beams are sliced to keep different users in different beams at the same frequency which allows reuse of frequency.  This technology achieves superior levels of interference suppression and reduces RF pollution.
  • 15. Contd…  This is the next step in an evolutionary path towards increasing the capacity of cellular systems Figure: SDMA technology(general and actual mechanism)
  • 16. COMPARISION OF SWITCHED BEAM ANTENNA AND ADAPTIVE ARRAYS CRITERIA SWITCHED BEAM ADAPTIVE ARRAYS INTEGERATION • Easy to implement • Low cost • Transceiver complexity • High cost RANGE/COVERAGE • More coverage compared to conventional systems • Less coverage compared to adaptive array • More coverage compared to switched beam system INTERFERENCE REJECTION •Difficulty in distinguishing between desired signal and interferer • Does not react to the movement of Interferers. • Focusing is narrower • Capable of nulling interfering signals
  • 17. ADVANTAGES OF SMART ANTENNA  Enhance coverage through Range extension.  Fully controllable by software so less manual operations.  Reduction in transmitted power.  Reduce co-channel interference (CCI) and multipath interference.  Provides high security.  Improve system capacity.  Compatibility, it can be applied to various multiple access techniques such as TDMA,FDMA ,and CDMA.
  • 18. Smart Antenna’s Drawbacks  Their transceivers are much more complex than traditional base station transceivers.  Expensive.
  • 19. APPLICATION  Cellular and wireless networks  Electronic warfare (EWF) as a countermeasure to electronic jamming  Satellite systems
  • 20. CONCLUSION  Smart antennas are the intelligent antenna systems that vastly improve the efficiency of wireless transmission.  SAS can achieve high transmission data rate and coverage area by effectively reducing multipath and co channel interference.  Smart antenna systems are software-controllable, remotely configurable.  Promising technology to resolve the traffic capacity .
  • 21. References [1].R. H .Roy, “An overview of smart antenna technology and its application on wireless communication systems,” Proc .IEEE conf.personal wireless comm.,2007, pp. 234 – 238 [2].Chryssomallis, M., 2008. Smart antennas , IEEE Antennas and Propogation Magazine, 42(3): 129 -136 [3].S. F. Shaukat , Mukhtar ul Hassan, R. Farooq, H. U. Saeed and Z. Saleem, “Sequential studies of beam forming algorithms for smart antenna systems”, world applied sciences journal , vol .6, no. 6, pp 754-758,2009 [4].http://www.iec.org [5].http://www.smartantennas.googlepages.com