Passive Voice

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Passive Voice

  1. 1. PASSIVE VOICE
  2. 2. Use <ul><li>Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: My bike was stolen. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: A mistake was made. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Form of the Passive <ul><li>Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: A letter was written. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the finite form of the verb is changed ( to be + past participle). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped). </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Structure <ul><li>TENSE ACTIVE PASSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Pr. Simple The singer writes many songs Many songs are written by the singer </li></ul><ul><li>Past Simple The singer wrote many songs Many songs were written by the singer </li></ul><ul><li>Future Simple The singer will write many songs Many songs will be written by the singer </li></ul><ul><li>Pres. Contin. The singer is writing many songs Many songs are being written by the singer </li></ul><ul><li>Past Contin. The singer was writing many songs Many songs were being written by the singer </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>TENSE ACTIVE PASSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Pres. Perf. Simp The singer has written many songs Many songs have been written by the singer </li></ul><ul><li>Past Perf. Simp. The singer had written many songs Many songs had been written by the singer </li></ul><ul><li>Modals The singer should write song Many songs should be written by the singer </li></ul><ul><li>Modal Perfects The singer must have written songs Many songs must have been written by the singer </li></ul><ul><li>Have to The singer has to write many songs Many songs have to be written by the singer </li></ul><ul><li>Be going to The singer is going to write songs Many songs are going to be written by the singer </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Affirmative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>verb to be + past participle of main verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That film was directed by Spielberg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We only have to add not to auxiliary to be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That film was not directed by Spielberg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interrogative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions start with to be. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was that film directed by Spielberg? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the questions include a modal or another auxiliary, the questions start with it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should the job be finished by Monday? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have any new bands been discovered lately? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. How do we change a sentence into passive? <ul><li>Verb to be goes in the same tense as the main verb in the active sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They sold their house last week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their house was sold last week </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Place as a subject the first object after the verb in the active, either direct or indirect. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We will give a present to James at the party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A present will be given to James at the party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will give James a present at the party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James will be given a present at the party. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>If the indirect object is a pronoun, it must be changed for its subject form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They showed me their last album </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I was shown their last album </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is usually done with verbs like give, show, tell, ask, offer, pay, promise, lend, sell and send, who carry double object. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The subject of the active goes at the end of the passive after by, and if it is a personal pronoun, we have to change it for its object form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many rock stars have held concerts here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concers have been held here by many rock stars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He is likely to win a Grammy award next year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Grammy award is likely to be won by him next year. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When the subject is obvious, unknown or it’s not worth mention it, it can be dropped. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In this hotel, the rooms are cleaned every day </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. It is said that/(he) is said to <ul><li>With verbs like say, think, believe, know or report is possible to use two forms of passive </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal IT followed by a that-clause + subj + vb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is said that Eric Clapton is a great musician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is known that many pop singers come from England </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subject + passive vb + infinitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eric Clapton is said to be a great musician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That band is known to have an awful singer. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Have/Get + Something Done <ul><li>Have/get + Noun + participle express actions we ask others to do. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’m going to have/get my hair cut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I got my car repaired yesterday </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get is more informal, usual in oral English. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We got our house painted last week. </li></ul></ul>

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