Narrative Techniques & other Literary Devices Mr. Ruiz & Ms. Cybulski
Allusion What is it?A figure of speech that makesreference things outside of the literary work. Such as…
Biblical Allusions For Example : “I thought Mary was a sincere friend, until I found out she ratted me out for skipping, showing what a Judas she was. “A reference to anything, or anyone who pertains to the Bible, in a literary work.
Historical Allusions For Example : “School should be renamed Auschwitz.”A reference in a literary work pertaining to historical events or people.
Dantes InfernoDantes guide through his journey is a famous Roman poet by the name of Virgil
Literary Allusion For Example :“Jane walked through the Mall, looking in awe at all the stores, like every piece of clothing were giant mushrooms, and talking animals. She stayed so long that when her mother came to pick her up she thought she said “Off with her head!” “ A reference to other literary works.
White Rabbit ...”And if you go chasing rabbits And you know youre going to fall Tell em a hookah smoking caterpillar Has given you the callTo call Alice, when she was just small...” -Jefferson White
Cultural Allusion For example :“ Krista sang like a God. She was the missing member of The Supremes.“A reference that alludes to cultural influence or famous people.
Till the fat lady sings!A frequent term used in society, which alludes back to the day when Opera singers where usually over weight women, who where the main role, and usually sang the last song.
AttitudeThis is the way a speaker or author feels about a certain situation. For Example :The speaker may be punished by his parents for bad grades so his attitude would be annoyed…
Think... How does a situation make you feel.BUT! You havent expressed those feelings.
ToneThe way the speaker or author expresses his attitude and how he feels about a certain situation. For Example:When the speaker is punished for getting bad grades he expresses it in a bitter tone.
So say you feel annoyed by something...You would express it with anger, maybe screaming!
Mood The atmosphere created by the setting. For Example:The mood created between the parent and the child would be hostile from him getting bad grades and getting punished.
So if your angry with everyone...wouldnt it create a hostile atmosphere? YES! That is what mood is, Atmosphere!
Reliability How dependable is the work. If the author / characters are bias.- Think, does the speaker have feelings toward any other character? Dont trust a characters description of another characters if they hate them, it would obliviously would be a horrid description
The best speaker to rely on is Third Person Omniscient!
Repetition Repeating a word or a phrase for emphasis.We listened to the gun fire beyond the walls. We listened to the walls being hit byshrapnel, ricochets, and blind fire, at least its what I thought it could of been. Welistened to the creaking the windows made when they opened and shut due tothe wind from the outside. We listened to the cries of our men, and the prayersthey made to their gods. We listened, but said nothing. They where clearly listening to something...
ImageryMaking images and pictures through diction, and other figurative devices.
Choice of DetailsDetails are items that make up a larger story orpicture.The detail that Othello was black and athigher rank than Iago cause the main conflict in the story.
Point of ViewThe perspective the story is being told in.
First Person -Limited access to other characters -Usually another character-Key words : “I” , “We”, “Us”
Third Person- Can be omniscient or limited - Key words “ He”, “She”,”They”...
DialogueCharacter interaction with or through conversation.
Bill: Bob! Wait! Please!Bob : Ugh! Everyone says your a home schooled, jungle freak, who is a less hot version of me.
FlashbackGoing back in time during a present situation for different purposes.
ForeshadowA subtle reference to whats to come.
ApostropheAddressing or talking to a lifeless object, almost expecting it to reply. For Example:“Oh homework, why must you be so painful, let me have a social life!”
Think of a trophy (apostrophe), they usually have a little person on the top doing something. Its lifeless but its in action.
AsideA dramatic device where the character speaks to the audience.
Act II Scene II Juliet. O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo? Deny thy father and refuse thy name; Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love, And Ill no longer be a Capulet. Romeo.[Aside.] Shall I hear more, or shall I speak at this?
StereotypesCliched or predictable situations and situations.
Turning Points -Point of View is changed -Climax reaches its highest tension For Example:A turning point in The Lion King is when Mufasa dies.
Internal Monologue speech.Thinking in words, or inner Could be a verbal stream of conscious. For Example:Someone could be thinking “Wow what is she wearing?!” but could tell that person “What a cute skirt!”
Soliloquy A device where a character talks tohimself, sharing with the audience his feelings without any other character knowing.
Manipulation of TimeWhen an author changes the time in which characters are at for emphasis of different situations. For example: -Foreshadowing -Flashback
In medias Res Meaning “In the middle of things.”When a story begins in the middle or at the end, rather than the beginning. For Example:A hero can wake up in the middle of a battle, torn and hurt, but thats where we started reading, we have no clue how he got there!