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MMT VDO

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Transcript

  • 1. Text Audio Image/Graphics Video Animation 1
  • 2. Video 1
  • 3. It’s everywhere!!! 2
  • 4. It’s everywhere!!! Cinema 2
  • 5. TV It’s everywhere!!! Cinema 2
  • 6. TV DVD VCD It’s everywhere!!! Cinema 2
  • 7. TV DVD VCD It’s everywhere!!! Mobile Phone Cinema 2
  • 8. TV DVD VDO VCD Chat It’s everywhere!!! Mobile Phone Cinema 2
  • 9. TV Internet DVD Streaming VDO VCD Chat It’s everywhere!!! Mobile Phone Cinema 2
  • 10. TV Internet DVD Streaming VDO VCD Chat VDO on- demand e-Learning It’s everywhere!!! Mobile Phone Cinema 2
  • 11. TV Internet DVD Streaming VDO VCD Chat VDO on- demand e-Learning It’s everywhere!!! Mobile Phone Cinema ...and Many MORE... 2
  • 12. Agenda 3
  • 13. Agenda VDO Fundamental 3
  • 14. Agenda VDO Fundamental Properties of VDO 3
  • 15. Agenda VDO Fundamental Properties of VDO Digital VDO Formats 3
  • 16. Agenda VDO Digital VDO Production Fundamental Properties of VDO Digital VDO Formats 3
  • 17. Agenda VDO Digital VDO Production Fundamental Record Properties of VDO Digital VDO Formats 3
  • 18. Agenda VDO Digital VDO Production Fundamental Record Properties of VDO Digital Capture VDO Formats 3
  • 19. Agenda VDO Digital VDO Production Fundamental Record Properties Edit of VDO Digital Capture VDO Formats 3
  • 20. Properties of VDO 4
  • 21. Analog VDO • Motion VDO was originally created and stored in analog form. 5
  • 22. Digital VDO • A means of reproducing the continuous VDO waveform as a stream of digital numbers. 6
  • 23. Digital VDO • A means of reproducing the continuous VDO waveform as a stream of digital numbers. various une to nalog t: imm ed to a Benefi attribut ortion as n o i s e . . . dist such 6
  • 24. Interlacing open wiki to embrace the explanation!! • Interlacing was originally conceived as a way to achieve good visual quality within a limitations of a narrow bandwidth. even field odd field 7
  • 25. Progressive Scanning (non-interlaced scanning) • A method of representing moving images on a display screen, in which every pixel is represented in each frame. • Computer monitors use a progressive scan. • The standard refresh rate for a flicker-free display is a vertical scan rate of 75 Hz or higher. • It’s used to project movies in theaters. 8
  • 26. Note in digital TV terminology: interlaced scan is denoted by a lowercase i progressive scan is denoted by a lowercase p frame rate: (60i, 24p) resolution: (1080i, 720p) 9
  • 27. Flicker Rate • Flicker fusion rate is the human eye’s ability to notice flicker within rapid pulses of light. • Flicker will be observed if a light pulses on and off below 72 pulses per second (pps). 10
  • 28. Frame Rate • Frame frequency is a measure of how quickly an image device can produce unique consecutive images called frames. (expressed in frames per second - fps) • Typically, the human eye can interpret motion at 10 fps, but this rate causes a flicker effect that’s distract. • Increasing the frame rate reduces flickering. 11
  • 29. Frame Rate • Movies - 14 fps • Television: • NTSC - 29.97 fps • HDTV - 60 fps • VDO games (frame rate is very important): • action-oriented games - 20-30 fps • 3D-heavy games - 90-100 fps 12
  • 30. Aspect Ratios • The ratio of the width of the image to its height (w:h) • motion-picture - 1.85:1 and 2.35:1 • tv screens - 1.33:1 (aka 4:3) • HDTV - 1.78:1 (aka 16:9) 16:9 4:3 letterbox 13
  • 31. Compression • VDO is huge - one sec of analog VDO stored in an uncompressed digital format takes up 1 MB of disk space • thus, 5-min VDO ~ 300 MB • not practical • VDO compression is a MUST • VDO contains many spatial and temporal redundancies • Codecs are needed for creating and viewing 14
  • 32. Digital VDO Formats 15
  • 33. AVI • Most common AV data on Windows • Can be saved in a variety of compression schemes - full frames (uncompressed), Radius’s Cinepak, Intel Video, and Indeo. 16
  • 34. MOV • Quicktime Movie was developed by Apple Computer • MPEG-4 • Qt 7 use H.264 17
  • 35. MPG • The compressed VDO file format for standard DVD using the MPEG-2 encoding standard • A large file can be transferred to MPEG with little loss of quality while dropping the bit rate a great deal 18
  • 36. • The MPEG group develops the standards for encoding VDO and audio • MPEG standards: • MPEG-1: used as VCD standard (MP3 is the popular compression) • MPEG-2: use in many things such as DVD, digital satellite TV and so on • MPEG-4: support 3D content, low bit-rate encoding, support for Digital Right Management 19
  • 37. Others • WMV • a part of Windows Media framework • used for streaming VDO over the internet • uses MPEG-4 standard • RM • a multimedia container with RealVideo and RealAudio codecs in a single file • is used to stream AV over the internet 20
  • 38. VDO Production 21
  • 39. Equipments • Digital tapeless (D) • HDV (D) • DV (formerly DVC) • 8mm (A) • VHS (A) 22
  • 40. Connecting Recorder to Computer 23
  • 41. Coaxial • VDO and audio signals are both carries in one cable • Poorest transfer 24
  • 42. A/V • Use RCA connectors • Yellow is (composite) video • Red is right audio & White is left audio 25
  • 43. S-Video • Separate video - transmit VDO signals over a cable by dividing the VDO info into 2 separate signals: color (chrominance) and brightness (luminance) • Sharper than composite VDO • must be used in conjunction with audio cables 26
  • 44. USB • USB 2.0 are common • 480 Mbps 27
  • 45. FireWire • Developed by Apple Computer • IEEE-1394 standard • 400 Mbps • higher transfer rates are available (800, 1600, and up to 3100 Mbps) 28
  • 46. Transferring from Recorder to Computer • Calculate disk space (uncompressed): • (pixel width) x (pixel height) x (color bit depth) x (fps) x (duration in secs) / 8,000,000 • say, 3-min VDO @ 15 fps, 24-bit depth, 320x240 pixels will take: • (320) x (240) x (24) x (15) x (180) / 8,000,000 = 622 MB 29
  • 47. VDO Editing • Editing: • cut and paste sections • add special effects • add transitions • add titles 30