The Internet and How It Works
What is Internet ?
The origin of the Internet
How the Internet works
Communicating and Collaborating on the Web
What is Social Networking ?
Conducting Business over the Internet
What is E-Commerce ?
Accessing and Moving Around the Internet
Searching the Web Effectively
The Internet is the largest computer
world, connecting millions of computers.
A world-wide network of computers allows people to share information
Government and military officials developed the early Internet as
a reliable way to communicate in the event of war. Eventually, scientists
and educators used the Internet to exchange research.
A network of networks, joining many government, university and private
computers together and providing an infrastructure for the use of Email, bulletin boards, file archives, hypertext documents, databases and
other computational resources.
The usage of Internet
Apply for jobs or schools
Fill out government forms
Check bank accounts
Communicate with family, friends
Learn new skills
Evolved from Advanced Research
Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). In
1969 ARPANET was born on. First
named as ARPANET. This is renamed as
Vinton Cerf : Father of Internet,
Co-designer of the TCP/IP networking
4 nodes were inter-connected:
UCLA,SRI,UCSB, U. of Utah
Charley Kline from UCLA sent 1st
A computer (or other device) connected to the Internet acts as
either a client (a computer that asks for information) or a server (a
computer that receives the request and returns the information to the
Data travels between clients and servers along a system of
communication lines or pathways. The largest and fastest of these
pathways is the Internet backbone.
To ensure that data is sent to the correct computer along
the pathways, IP addresses (unique ID numbers) are assigned to all
computers connected to the Internet.
Internet Protocol (IP) address
How computers connected to the Internet identify each other
Websites are assigned unique IP addresses
WWW (World Wide Web)
WWW (World Wide Web) is subset of the Internet
Common protocols enable computers to talk to each other
Most important service provided by Internet.
An internet-based hypermedia initiative for global information sharing.
Developed in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee of the European Particle Physics
Lab (CERN) in Switzerland.
◦ Tim Berners-Lee
• Father of W W W and the inventor of HTML.
• Invented W W W while working at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory.
Three main ways to connect to the Internet
All you need is a computer, phone-line and Internet Service Provider! (ISP)
Not as fast as other Internet connections, but often more affordable
Travels through fiber-optic cables underground
Needs to be connected by a Modem to your computer
• Modem: A hub that connects the computer to the Internet
Faster than Dial-up
Wireless Connection (Wi-Fi)
Your computer must be a “Wireless enabled” device
Your computer can pick up signals from different wireless networks
Some networks require passwords or a subscription, others are free
Social Networking is the use of communities to engage with others: Facebook
, MySpace, LinkedIn, Twitter.
Social Networking sites often include social media tools to facilitate the intera
ction and conversation
A social network is a map of the relationships between individuals, indicating
the ways in which they are connected through various social familiarities
ranging from casual acquaintance to close familial bonds." Wikipedia
Social networking sites typically let users develop a list of friends.
You can explore your friends' buddy lists and find people with similar
You can perform a number of online activities: blogging, mediasharing, commenting, testimonials.
You can personalize your 'space' easily using themes and widgets to make it
look different from other people's.
Seven Social Networking Statistics
77% of Fortune Global 100 Companies Use Twitter
70% of Local Businesses Use Facebook For Marketing
One in every nine people on Earth is on Facebook
People spend 700 billion minutes per month on Facebook
Each Facebook user spends on average 15 hours and 33 minutes a month on the site
More than 250 million people access Facebook through their mobile devices
It’s no longer a question about whether you use Social Media , but how well you do it
Web 2.0 can be described as the social web, in which the
user is also a participant. Before Web 2.0 technologies were
in place, we were only able to be passive users of the web.
Web 2.0 is a term often applied to a perceived ongoing transition of the
World Wide Web from a collection of websites to a full-fledged computing
platform serving web applications to end users. Ultimately Web 2.0 services
are expected to replace desktop computing applications for many
Examples of Web 2.0 technologies include social networking
sites, blogs, wikis, podcasts, and webcasts. Social networking sites enable
you to communicate and share information with friends as well as meet and
connect with others.
Blogs are journal entries posted to the web that are generally
organized by a topic or area of interest and are publicly available.
Generally, one person writes the blog, and others can comment on the
Video logs are personal journals that use video
content in addition to text, images, and audio.
Wikis are a type of website that allows users to collaborate on
content—adding, removing, or editing it. A Wiki is a website that allows
users to change content
Wikipedia uses wiki technology so content can be updated continually
Google Docs has wiki-like features
Webcasts are broadcasts of
audio or video content over
the Internet. Most webcasts are
distributed in “real time,” unlike
podcasts that are usually
prerecorded and made available
Podcasts are audio or video
content that is available over
the Internet. Users subscribe to
receive updates to podcasts.
Multimedia is anything that involves one or more forms of media
in addition to text, such as graphics, audio, and video clips.
Sometimes you need a special software program called a plug-in
(or player) to view and hear multimedia files. Plug-ins are often installed in
new computers or are offered free of charge at manufacturers’ websites.
E-commerce or electronic commerce is the process of conducting business
Because more business than ever before is conducted online,
safeguards have been put in place to ensure that transactions are
Some important safeguards to keep in mind include looking for
that the website is secure, shopping at well-known, reputable
avoiding making on- line transactions on public computers.
Types of E-Commerce
Business-to-consumer e-commerce (B2C)
Connects individual consumers with sellers , cutting out the middleman
Business-to-business e-commerce (B2B)
Supports business transactions on across private networks, the Internet, and the Web
Consumer-to-consumer e-commerce (C2C)
Connects individual sellers with people shopping for used items
Top 10 e-commerce developments of the last decade
Once you're connected to the Internet, in
order to locate, navigate to, and view web
pages, you need to install special software
called a web browser on your system.
The most common
Chrome, and Safari.
web browsers are
Safari: for Apples/Macintosh
Internet Explorer: for Windows only
Google Chrome: created by Google
Mozilla Firefox: works on Mac & PC
You gain access to a website by typing in its address, called a Uniform Resource
A URL is composed of several parts, including the protocol, the domain, the top-level
domain, and paths (or subdirectories).
Sample URL’s (or Internet Addresses)
Internet Address or URL
not for profit organization
One unique aspect of the web is that you can jump from place to place by
clicking on specially formatted pieces of text or images called hyperlinks.
You can also use the Back and Forward buttons, History lists, breadcrumb
trails, and Favorites or Bookmarks to navigate the web.
Favorites, live bookmarks, and social bookmarking help you return to
specific web pages without having to type in the URL and help you organize
the web content that is most important to you.
HTTP : Hypertext Transfer Protocol : Hyper Text Markup Language
A special language or code used to design and publish documents on the Web
A search engine is a set of programs that searches the web using specific
keywords you wish to query and then returns a list of the websites on which
those keywords are found.
Search engines can be used to search for images, podcasts, and videos in
addition to traditional text-based web content.
A subject directory is a structured outline of websites organized by topic and
subtopic. Metasearch engines search other search engines.
Not all websites are equal, and some are better sources for research
than others. To evaluate whether it is appropriate to use a website as are
source, determine whether the author of the site is reputable and
whether the site is intended for your particular needs.
In addition, make sure that the site content is not biased, the
information on the site is current, and all the links on the site are
available and appropriate. If multiple sites offer the same content, this is
another indication that the information is accurate.
Purpose of Search Engines
Helping people find what they’re looking for
Starts with an “information need”
Convert to a query