My part in HU’s commitment to games and simulations for learning LTMS LTMS 603: Engaging with Learning Activities, Games and Simulations Developing a games and simulations track Harrisburg University Work with faculty to incorporate games and simulations into the curriculum Creating a DNA/RNA game with Biotechnology faculty as a student project Creating a proposal for a university-wide, technology-based learning system that will incorporate games and simulations (looking for partners/funding) Center for Advanced Entertainment & Learning Technologies Explore games and simulations and expand upon current strategies and implementations Learning and Entertainment Evolution Forum (LEEF)
LEEF is an annual event sponsored by the university that focuses on the changing landscape of technology in learning and entertainment. It is a face-to-face opportunity for us to connect with and learn from some of the leading game and simulation designers and developers throughout the nation. This event was what first attracted Quest Diagnostics to Harrisburg University and me being here today to talk with you about games and simulations for training. LEEF 2010 planning is underway. We’ll be releasing more information throughout the fall.
These are some of the games I grew up playing. Do any of these games look familiar to you? Can you name a few?
Here are some of the games I play today. NBA Basketball Wii sports Rock Band Mind Habits (brain game)
Here are some of the games and simulations I’ve created Coal Today - edutainment Novacare Crossword - eLearning Hathwaite Sales Games – blended learning Dead with Ilsa Games - entertainment Legal Issues Simulation - eLearning Producer Word Find - eLearning Blivit Game - entertainment
Get to know you. (Give 1:30 minute to think about) – Use Horton Timer Your name, title and a little bit about what you do. What is a game you played as a kid that you are fond of? What do you remember most about the game? What is a game you play now? What do you like most about the game? What is a training or communication project that you think would be enhanced through game or simulation delivery? (Should be 5 minutes in)
Objectives: (Benefits/Results) Why use games and simulations? (Selecting) What are the best learning objectives for games and simulations? (Game vs. Simulation) (Opportunities) When to consider games and simulations? Design considerations for games and simulations Development considerations for games and simulations When talking about games and simulations it’s a little hypocritical to stand up here and talk for two hours. I have planned on primarily focusing on Selecting and Opportunities today. But, I would prefer some open dialogue and two way conversation. So, if there are any questions throughout or anything you want to discuss more in-depth, I think we should explore that.
Why games and simulations What are some challenges for training and development in today’s workplace? (Do in a Word document.) Shrinking training budgets (looking for ROI) Providing learning value Assessment (Generational) Training and development expectations of younger employees increasing Distributed workforce Knowledge is the new competitive advantage Focus on development, versus survival Engaging employees According to research from HR Solutions Engaged employees = 25 to 27 percent Disengaged employees, a group defined as showing lackluster commitment and little loyalty and bare motivation = 14 to 16 percent The number of ambivalent employees, who often work simply for a paycheck, and exert minimal effort = 59 percent. How can games and simulations address these challenges? Shrinking training budgets = get value out of training activities (We’ll talk more about ROI in a few minutes) Assessment = performance-based training, assessment built-in to training – constant assessment and feedback = games/simulations Distributed workforce = games/sims = eLearning in most cases Generational = best practices designed into games, games can address expectations of younger employees Engaging employees = games and sims = active learning
Motivation Attention / Engagement Relevance Confidence Satisfaction Social Games often take place in social environments, involving large distributed communities. These communities have residents, geography, history and cultural norms like their real world counterparts. Experiential Games are inherently experiential giving the user a chance to engage multiple senses, test hypotheses, and judge results. Problem-solving Success in the experience is gained by identifying, proposing, and solving problems. Scenario-based problem solving in the hallmark of virtual experiences. Users/gamers have the chance to master this skill through practice; whether trying to defeat a &quot;Boss&quot;, solve a math equation, or coordinate a team of fire-fighters. Research Many games and simulations require the use of prior knowledge to filter new information, and apply it to a new situation. The gamer is often required to read and seek out new information (in the experience or real world) to master the game.
So, motivating learners and providing engaging experiences are worthy goals, but what about results that are going to make management react differently to the term “game?” ------ Business ROI Similar to any other eLearning Reduced travel time Reduced time away from work 2008 eLearning Guild research report on Immersive Learning Simulations (1,100 members completed the survey) Of the Guild members who have weighed in on this, more than 76% indicate they have received either a modest or a very good return on investment. 2008 eLearning Guild research report on Immersive Learning Simulations Median and Average Costs Per Learner: The median cost per learner for an ILS is $102.08, and the average cost is $281.51. Most projects fall in the $20-$50 K and $50K-$100K range Clark Aldrich – ASTD Learning Circuits Article: Engaging Mini-games Find a Niche in Training Game cost - $10K for five minute game, $15K for a ten minute game, $40K for a thirty minute game ------ Another ROI consideration is improved learning outcomes and performance results. These can be realized whether using a game online or as part of classroom. Learning ROI Lack of Soft Skills Training = Economic Crisis (ethics, decision making, etc.) Training budgets trimmed back Corporations thinned out = not a lot of mentoring available People are faking it. Middle managers do not have the training needed to succeed. 2008 eLearning Guild research report on Immersive Learning Simulations Over 93% of Guild members who have created an ILS report that their efforts produce results that are either somewhat or much better than other forms of rich-skill practice. Cisco binary game – 50% said it helped them pass the certification exam, 25% think that it will, 25% had mixed reviews Overall Benefits: Documented results indicating great improvements in performance (talk about a few of those in a minute) Practice multiple times Make more mistakes Try more options
Learning ROI Center for Army Leadership: Simulated Interpersonal Situations Train Iraqi troops to communicate beyond traditional tactics Simple decision making simulation with some games integrated throughout Role playing scenarios as an assessment. Group of people that just took traditional classroom training did really badly in the role playing scenarios Group of people that went through classroom training and online simulation did really, really well Executive Leadership Program at Troy University (self reported data) Organizational Behavior class Professor got excellent ratings from students He wanted to know what impact he was having after they left the class Poll indicated that students didn’t apply and could really not even remember He replaced elements of class – tests, lectures with simulations (virtual leader simulation) Another poll indicated marked improvement in not only recalling information over time, but being able to apply it Lack of Soft Skills Training = Economic Crisis (ethics, decision making, etc.) Training budgets trimmed back Corporations thinned out = not a lot of mentoring available People are faking it. Middle managers do not have the training needed to succeed. Over 93% of Guild members who have created an ILS report that their efforts produce results that are either somewhat or much better than other forms of rich-skill practice. Cisco binary game – 50% said it helped them pass the certification exam, 25% think that it will, 25% had mixed reviews Overall Benefits: Documented results indicating great improvements in performance Practice multiple times Make more mistakes Try more options
The learning ROI from games is also impacted/connected to the way we’re learning the brain works. Brain Based Research Brain plasticity (5-10 years) – before then thought that the brain was rigid and that you had an infinite amount of brain cells 2008 study: five days of learning technology showed physical evidence of a rewired brain. Continuous partial attention causes stress and an addictive outcome occurs. The brain begins to thrive on perpetual connectivity. Eventual results in brain strain (errors in work, judgment). In learning, this is somewhat relative to cognitive load (not overloading working memory so that schema acquisition and building can occur). Cognitive load theory more related to use of media and screen design. This brain strain is not as prevalent with games (well-designed games) Well designed games engage multiple senses and multiple intelligences that address the need for social elements in learning, a balance between leveling and completion and time for consolidation (reflection)
Learning Design This concept that the brain can get overwhelmed is accounted for in game design by leveling. There are two design concepts related to leveling that we can apply to learning design to improve our learning ROI. Flow: Combination and balance of use of existing skills (ability) with acquiring new skills (challenge) that keeps the person engaged. Otherwise, if something is too challenging it’s frustrating. If it’s too easy, it’s boring. Goal: stay on the line or a little above or a little below. Cycles of Expertise: Learners practicing skills until they are nearly automatic, then having those skills fail that cause the learners to think again and learn new skills. (Pacing) Analogous to riding a bike. When you’re learning or experiencing something new you’re biking up hill. When you’re using something you know you’re biking down hill. An example of these strategies in a game would be: 1 st Level = pretty easy (Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?) 2 nd Level = knowledge + some new challenges 3 rd Level = knowledge, but need to apply it a little faster 4 th Level = knowledge + some new challenges Final Level = Cumulative application (really, really hard, but really fun and engaging) How is most learning structured? Module 1: new stuff Module 2: more new stuff Module 3: more new stuff Module 4: more new Module 5: Summary Assessment: too easy What’s important? In an unpaced model everything is new and everything is important . . . So nothing is. In a pacing model it’s easier to pick out the new stuff and change your attention when it occurs. Purpose of talking about brain strain/ cognitive load and how well-designed games and simulations address these issues is to consider these techniques in all learning situations. We can improve learning ROI by implementing game and simulation techniques whether or not the learning solution is considered a “game” or “simulation”
Best learning objectives for games and simulations? (35 minutes) So far we’ve been talking about games and simulations as one. (Clark’s diagram) There’s not only a struggle in the industry about what to call these things, but it’d be hard to find agreement about what makes something a game and what makes something a simulation and how they are different and similar. And, it really doesn’t make a difference overall, but I think it’s important to define to help with communication and selecting the right solution to address the learning need. Do exercise in Word. What are some keywords you would use to define a game? What are some keywords you would use to define a simulation? It’s OK if some are similar Put these in table below working table Game: No background needed, simple back story Third-person (detachment of consequences) Focused / Narrow Score based Distorted reality Keyboard or mouse controlled (screen location) Rules govern play Levels of similar play (more difficult, different scenes) More non-linear Simulation: Back story First or second person (attached to consequences) Broad experience Performance based Contextual and realistic Decision controlled Information governs play Levels of completely new situations More linear (process) Similarities: Characters Challenges & Obstacles (changing landscape) Decisions (Analysis) User/learner control Ending (closure) Obviously there is overlap and sometimes its hard to define something as a game and something as a simulation. But, these are differentiations we can make and can be helpful in communicating and determining appropriate solutions
When we think about the different types of game and simulation genres there’s a lot to consider. This is a listing of some of the genres and how they might fall within a certain category or another . . . Or both, or be undefinable as a game or simulation. Does anyone disagree with any of these designations? Is anyone not sure what any of these genres are? Does everyone know what an augmented reality game is?
The genres were just another way of thinking about all the possible variations in games and simulations and continuing to compare and contrast games and simulations. For me, there are six categories of games or simulations for learning Simple = crossword, word find, jeopardy Serious = some context to application Cause/Effect = usually spreadsheet/math oriented; based on stats, connections between variables Physical = mimicking psychomotor skills, usually device oriented Soft Skill = interpersonal skills, emotional intelligence, beliefs and mores, value-system related Software Now let’s check out some examples: I’m not financially connected to any of the organizations and am not recommending them for purchase – simply showing them as an example. Simple: Producer Crossword, Producer Word Find Governance & Requirements: Underwriting & Compliance: Page 2 of 5 Standard Products & Value: All Inclusive Services : Page 2 of 4 Summary (Test for Understanding) or Activity (Scavenger Hunt) http://www.gamesinaflash.com http://www.raptivity.com/games-turbopack.html – Play the jeopardy game if there’s time. www.games2train.com Serious Game: Celebrity Calamity - http://www.celebritycalamity.com/ (Group play this one if there’s time) A game project completed in partnership with The Doorways to Dreams Fund (D2D), a non-profit organization with the mission of expanding access to financial services to low-income families by providing innovative financial products and services. D2D partnered with Enspire Learning to create a casual game teaching smart use of debit and credit cards. Robo Rush (ActOn Sims) - http://www.actonsims.com/games/roborush/index.html (Group play this one if there’s time – need access to email) The primary audience is students entering the Acton MBA program, however the games are designed to be useful for a broad audience of teens and adults interested in developing entrepreneurial skills. The program provides hands-on simulations of real-world entrepreneurial challenges to increase transfer and retention of key concepts and in order to prepare students for deeper classroom experiences and career success. Cisco games arcade - https://cisco.hosted.jivesoftware.com/docs/DOC-2608 Mindshare Binary game Cause/Effect: http://forio.com/simulate_overview.htm http://forio.com/simulate http://forio.com/simulate/simulations/runSim.html?id=80 (Transform troubled US Healthcare system) (Group play this one if there’s time) Created with Excel. I’ve used Xcelsius - http://www.sap.com/solutions/sapbusinessobjects/sme/xcelsius/index.epx http://www.horton.com/portfolio/heat_transfer/index.htm Distribution games (beer game, Army War College logistics game) Physical: (Psychomotor) Tips on Tap - http://www.webcourseworks.com/tipsontap/ (Group play this one if there’s time) Sim Man - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D5HrOdHPPyo&feature=related Airport Security - http://msnbc.com/modules/airport_security/Screener/ (need to practice this more) Device: Bayer Diagnostics (http://www.eqsim.com/demos/bayer/blood%20drop.html) Soft Skill: Employee Security: http://www.alleni.com/books/Resources/corndone/corndone.htm (Group play this one if there’s time) Crime Scene Game: http://www.horton.com/html/portfoliointerview.aspx (3 different versions) Lakeview Change Management: http://lakeview.experiencepoint.com/ US Sales and Marketing: www.humentum.net/Ken/PROMO06_d/PROMO06 Negotiation: http://www.nexlearn.com/client/harvard/negdemo/start.html The Investigator: http://demos.kognito.com/investigator/shell.html Legal Issues Simulation: in demos Software: Captivate: http://www.adobe.com/products/captivate/productinfo/product-demos/simulation-software/
Learning Strategy Now that we’ve identified and taken a look at some game and simulation examples, let’s talk about games and simulations within the context of a learning strategy. This is a diagram that I use to summarize the considerations that impact selecting an instructional strategy. It is a variation of what you would normally see as Bloom’s taxonomy. However, as Bloom’s is normally indicated, it only addresses the cognitive domain. This diagram addresses cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. The pyramid represents the learning objectives or the desired learning outcomes. Outside the pyramid are other factors that can support or disrupt the achievement of the learning objectives and should be considered as part of the instructional strategy. (Explain the outside of the pyramid.) – Not necessarily literal, not necessarily individual elements either (could all be happening on one screen) The use of games and simulations should be considered in this same context – as with any other instructional strategy. (Motivation = Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) Motivation 1 = complete the training Motivation 2 = change behavior In which levels of learning might each category fit best? In which domain might each category fit best? Would implementation be used primarily for instructional activities or motivation? Simple = crossword, word find, jeopardy (Recognize, Comprehend, Cognitive, information, activity, feedback) Serious = some context to application (Comprehend, Apply, Analyze, Cognitive, Affective, information, activity, feedback, connect) Cause/Effect = usually spreadsheet/math oriented; based on stats, connections between variables (Comprehend, Apply, Analyze, Create, Cognitive, Affective, activity, feedback, connect, motivation) Physical = mimicking psychomotor skills, usually device oriented (Recognize, Apply, Analyze, Cognitive, Psychomotor, activity, feedback, connect) Soft Skill = interpersonal skills, emotional intelligence, beliefs and mores, value-system related (Apply, Analyze, Create, Cognitive, Psychomotor, Affective, activity, feedback, connect, motivation) Software (Recognize, Comprehend, Apply, Analyze, Create, Cognitive, Psychomotor, information, activity, feedback, connect) What are some content topics that you guys address that you’re questioning whether or not a game or simulation might be appropriate? Leadership: World of Warcraft http://newlearningplaybook.com/blog/2008/06/04/online-games-ready-for-prime-time-leadership-development/ Virtual Leader (http://www.simulearn.net/leadershiptraining.html) Some overall learning strategy considerations: Starting training, completing training, faster learning, more knowledgeable people, better retention over time, natural for younger learners, matches experience of younger learners, corporate image, increased learner motivation
Q&A and break. Questions about the benefits of games and simulations, the different formats or thoughts on best uses? Any questions in general? 10 minutes
10 minute break scheduled
When to consider games and simulations? (15 minutes) Right before we broke we talked about some considerations for games and simulations as part of your learning strategy. Of course there are other factors that potentially impact the use of games and simulations beyond the learning objectives and performance goal. We’ve already talked about cost and ROI, but what are some others. Learning Organization Strategy – For some the use of games and simulations stems from the learning organization’s goals and objectives Use current methods Use experimental methods Become more visible in the organization (do something new/unique) Audience Analysis Younger audience Personality type (sales) Men vs. Women (stereotype is not true – women play games, just not the same games as men – more community, personal, and simple games) Organizational Analysis – Does your organizational culture support a game and simulation approach? What is the companies culture? How hard will it be for employees / management to accept games as training? (Doesn’t mean you shouldn’t do it . . . Just need to consider and put plans in action to meet objections) Will managers support employees playing a game at their desk? Managers need to be trained. Global organization or western organization (learning hierarchy is viewed differently in different countries – learner control and collaboration are not considered appropriate in some) Environmental Analysis – Can configure the environment for game play (headphones, etc.) Where will learners engage in the game? – Media may not be appropriate for learning at the desktop. When will learners engage in the game? – Screen size at time of engagement, environment at time of engagement
The real question when considering when to use games or simulations: “What is the cost of failure?” If the cost of failure is consequential then would you rather have someone reading 20 screens and taking a multiple choice test or would you rather have them playing a game or simulation where they need to analyze information and make decisions to solve problems and achieve goals. Loss of life (why the military and aviation has invested heavily in games and simulations) Loss of sales Loss of customer Lawsuit Loss of employee Violation of regulations
How to design and develop games and simulations? So, you’ve determined that a game or simulation is appropriate for the learners, will be the best learning strategy to meet your objectives and is supported by stakeholders. How do you need to think about your eLearning processes and structure differently? Do you? One element of your structure you need to look at closely is your team. Team Do you have one person project teams or multiple person teams? – If so, consider multiple team members to draw on strengths (instructional design, graphic design and development require more specialization when working on game and simulation projects) How do those team members interact? (SME, project manager, instructional designer, graphic designer, developer). Game conceptualizing is best as collaborative and creative. At what point in the project do you bring in graphic design and development? – bring them in earlier than normal. Development of engine can take place during design. Do any of your team members have experience with creating/playing games? – Get them experience. Bring in consultant to guide them. Consultant design project . . . or consultant develop project. Time to develop. If a detailed, fairly complex game or simulation it can take 8 to 9 months to design and develop. The expanded team. Are there others in the organization that can use the game/simulation resources (communications, marketing, sales)
Instructional Design will also be impacted by the new approach . . . Instructional Design Non-linear experience (not necessarily a non-linear design – leveling) User control – need to experience vs. need to know and nice to know (use coaching as a design mechanism to help learners) Communicate, Manipulate, Navigate Time to digest – in complex simulations learners benefit from time away from the experience Flow – Balance between challenge and ability (not too difficult, but not too easy) Storytelling – need to create an experience in which the content resides. Structure Issue Character Location Time Not necessarily a stand alone solution (blended) Teach or evaluate (more debriefing and feedback when teaching) Game as competition Infusing corporate ideology and culture into the experience
Assessment Assessment is inherent to game and simulation play. How else will you assess? Does it make sense to take a multiple choice test after playing a game or simulation? What will you assess? Composite Score Score for Each Task Completion Status Duration (Start Time / End Time) Access (date) Record of Steps Performed Incorrectly Assessment (360 degree evaluation, observations, don't rely on self-evaluation) – Participants indicate they’ve learned less than their peers and managers do.
Development Phased/Versioned – Release of game does not have to be final version or include all levels Rapid development tools – The tools in your eLearning toolbox might not be appropriate for developing your game or simulation. May need more complex development or may be able to buy engines. Open source tools – 2d/3d games - http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_game_engines Simulation - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_computer_simulation_software My Udutu - http://www.myudutu.com/myudutu/login.aspx Reusability - Develop as an engine. Separate content from structure Documentation for other developers is needed, but also documentation for designers on how to add content to the engine. Usability – More than a next and back button.
Implementation Considerations Need to take the same implementation care you take with other projects: Logistics Communication Support Convenient – Need to be convenient to access and play for learners (online access, easy or no install) The &quot;pre-training&quot; experience - letting users gain expertise in the system prior to any training Out-of-class collaborations or mentoring in addition to game or simulation – not a stand-alone solution No matter how effective games or simulations might be still need to achieve Acceptable Cost per Student (?) – identify this as part of implementation Acceptable Time to Completion (?) – identify this as part of implementation Release with control groups to gather feedback before full release. HelpDesk-like support Change management (advertising campaign for game)
Virtual Worlds What is SecondLife http://secondlife.com/whatis/ What they are; what they aren’t: Not inherently a game, not inherently a simulation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4R1SrZua5ww&feature=related Sun Microsystems example (start at 3:32) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mo6M7cfafc4 Virtual World Irate Customer Sales Training http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vbBaaj-z2f8&feature=related 3D Medical Training http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DDTJJAwf6A4&feature=related Virtual World open source (OpenSim, Wonderland, and Open Croquet),
Any questions? (5 minutes) Clark Aldrich - The Complete Guide to Simulations and Serious Games James Paul Gee – What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy Play games and simulations (learning ones especially) Some resources: eLearning Guild eLearn Mag Training Tech Talk ASTD Inside Training Corporate University Exchange LinkedIn Ning Groups Should be 2 hours in
LinkedIn Facebook Ning Blog Twitter http://www.ning.com/andypetroski http://learnev.blogspot.com/
Transform Your Training Projects with Games and Simulations
Transform your Training Projects with Games and Simulations CCFL – Quest Diagnostics Monday, August 31
Andy Petroski Director of Learning Technologies Assistant Professor of Learning Technologies Harrisburg University Harrisburg University LTMS CAE<
<ul><li>June 18-19, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Harrisburg University </li></ul><ul><li>Games . Simulations . Console Games . Virtual Worlds </li></ul><ul><li>June 18 Keynote: Renowned author and simulation guru, Clark Aldrich will present “The Business and Learning Results of Games and Simulations” </li></ul><ul><li>June 19 Keynote: Julie Dirksen, games for learning project manager and Dr. Rick Van Sant, neuroscience investigator will present “Playing with the Brain: The potential impact of brain research on game and simulation design” </li></ul><ul><li>www.leef2009.net </li></ul><ul><li>Keynotes . Case Studies . High Tech Demos </li></ul>
Benefits Opportunities Design Development Selecting
Games & Simulations Problem-Based Learning Activities Serious Games Immersive Learning Simulations Learning Games Mini-Games Educational Games
Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Challenge Skill Flow Channel
selecting opportunities design benefits development
<ul><li>Andy Petroski </li></ul><ul><li>Director of Learning Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Professor of Learning Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Harrisburg University </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>http://www.linkedin.com/pub/andy-petroski/0/176/315 http://www.ning.com/andypetroski http://learnev.blogspot.com/ apetroski
Transform your Training Projects with Games and Simulations CCFL – Quest Diagnostics Monday, August 31