Playing to Learn: Using Games and Simulations in the Classroom 07-19-11

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Playing to Learn: Games and Simulations in the Classroom
12:30 PM - 3:30 PM
Promote active learning, impact student motivation and improve learning outcomes through the use of games and simulations in the classroom. Technology expands the opportunities for learning through games by increasing the interaction, expanding the audience and tracking the results. This session provides an overview of using games and simulations for learning, including an exploration of the impact of games and simulations, the types of games and simulations and considerations for using games and simulations in the classroom. Off-the-shelf games and game templates that can be implemented immediately will be reviewed and simple tools for creating your own games will also be explored.

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  • Playing to Learn: Games and Simulations in the Classroom 12:30 PM - 3:30 PM Promote active learning, impact student motivation and improve learning outcomes through the use of games and simulations in the classroom. Technology expands the opportunities for learning through games by increasing the interaction, expanding the audience and tracking the results. This session provides an overview of using games and simulations for learning, including an exploration of the impact of games and simulations, the types of games and simulations and considerations for using games and simulations in the classroom. Off-the-shelf games and game templates that can be implemented immediately will be reviewed and simple tools for creating your own games will also be explored. Mainly elementary and middle school teachers Mainly reading and math, but also science, history/social studies, communication
  • My Role, related to this presentation Also show wiki
  • Here are some of the games and simulations I’ve created Coal Today - edutainment Novacare Crossword - eLearning Hathwaite Sales Games – blended learning Dead with Ilsa Games - entertainment Legal Issues Simulation - eLearning Producer Word Find - eLearning Blivit Game - entertainment
  • Objectives: Define (Benefits/Results) Why use games and simulations? Stats – use of games for learning Why use games and sims for learning Type of games and sims Examples Ways to implement Games sites Student project examples When talking about games and simulations it’s a little hypocritical to stand up here and talk for three hours. So, let’s make this as interactive as possible.
  • Games Achieve a goal through individualized means. Follow rules to achieve a goal. Simulations -Follow a model. Test hyphotheses within a system. What do these definitions sound like or remind you of? Math, science, business, social studies . . .
  • So, what are we referring to when we talk about games and simulations for learning. When we hear the term game, these are maybe some of the images that come to mind. Do any of these look familiar?
  • Here are some of the games I play today. NBA Basketball Wii sports Rock Band Mind Habits (brain game) Do any of you play games? What kind of games do you play?
  • When we think about the different types of game and simulation genres there’s a lot to consider. This is a listing of some of the genres and how they might fall within a certain category or another . . . Or both, or be undefinable as a game or simulation. Some of these genres are good for learning and some are more for entertainment Does anyone disagree with any of these designations? Is anyone not sure what any of these genres are? Does everyone know what an augmented reality game is? Alternate Reality? Is there anything missing from this?
  • Bring the group up to the board possibly. So, I’ve been talking about games and simulations. As we continue to define them for learning and one might be better than the other, let’s consider what the difference between a game and simulation might be. What are similarities? Back Story Characters Challenges & Obstacles (changing landscape) Decisions (Analysis) User/learner control Ending (closure) Put these in table below working table Game: Third-person (detachment of consequences) Focused / Narrow Score based Distorted reality Keyboard or mouse controlled (screen location) Rules govern play Levels of similar play (more difficult, different scenes) More non-linear Simulation: First or second person (attached to consequences) Broad experience Performance based Contextual and realistic Decision controlled Information governs play Levels of completely new situations More linear (process) Obviously there is overlap and sometimes its hard to define something as a game and something as a simulation. But, these are differentiations we can make and can be helpful in communicating and determining appropriate solutions
  • Benefits: Play segments of videos: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=6117726917684965691# Play 6:32 minutes Engagement = games and sims = active learning Assessment = performance-based training, assessment built-in to training – constant assessment and feedback = games/simulations
  • Tools: KlickerZ (ppt question and first response game) SMART Notebook Game templates Examples: First response SMART Notebook (open this and show games) Show jeopardy labs - http://jeopardylabs.com/ (Have them create a jeopardy labs game) Classtools.net (show samples and templates) www.classtools.net http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBQ47s1qp1Y Benefits: Active learning Feedback for students and faculty Discussion generators Primary Objective: Information recall Assessment of comprehension (for adjustments)
  • The genres were just another way of thinking about all the possible variations in games and simulations and continuing to compare and contrast games and simulations. For me, there are six categories of games or simulations for learning Simple = crossword, word find, jeopardy ( http://tiny.cc/zkjdl ) – Play together (already went over this on previous page) Serious = some context to application (http://financialentertainment.org/play/celebritycalamity.html) – Play on your own http://www.lavamind.com/ http://www.indebted.com/the-game/debtski/ The spill - http://www.brandgames.com/spill/ http://www.nj.com/news/local/index.ssf/2009/11/computer_game_in_classrooms_is.html Bibliobouts http://bibliobouts.org/ Hot Shot Business http://disney.go.com/hotshot/hsb2/index.html Cause/Effect = usually spreadsheet/math oriented; based on stats, connections between variables http://forio.com/simulate/cdc/health-bound/overview/ - play on your own http://forio.com/simulate/cdc/health-bound/overview/ http://forio.com/simulate/showcase/ http://forio.com/simulate/mbean/mobile-phone-sim/run/ Lemonade Stand http://www.classbrain.com/cb_games/cb_gms_bag/lemonade.html Physical = mimicking psychomotor skills, usually device oriented http://www.webcourseworks.com/tipsontap/ Soft Skill = interpersonal skills, emotional intelligence, beliefs and mores, value-system related Employee Security: http://www.alleni.com/books/Resources/corndone/corndone.htm (Group play this one if there’s time) Crime Scene Game: http://www.horton.com/portfoliointerview.htm (3 different versions) Lakeview Change Management: http://lakeview.experiencepoint.com/ Negotiation: http://www.nexlearn.com/client/harvard/negdemo/start.html The Investigator: http://demos.kognito.com/investigator/shell.html Legal Issues Simulation: in demos Software Captivate: http://www.adobe.com/products/captivate.html http://www.mcwebb.eclipse.co.uk/2b_PI_trends.htm http://www.mcwebb.eclipse.co.uk/4a_update_a_risk.htm Now let’s check out some examples: I’m not financially connected to any of the organizations and am not recommending them for purchase – simply showing them as an example. General (related to many of the programs): Games for Change - http://www.gamesforchange.org/ http://fold.it/portal/ Nobel Prize Games - http://nobelprize.org/educational/index.html Biotechnology - Immune Attack (http://www.fas.org/immuneattack/) Route Games (http://www.routesgame.com/games/) Computer Information Systems - Cisco (uname: apetroski pword: Eriked27pa) https://learningnetwork.cisco.com/community/connections/games Management & eBusiness | Project Management | IS Engineering and Management -Corporation Inc - http://armorgames.com/play/7348/corporation-inc -Forio Simulations - http://forio.com/simulations.htm ActOn Sims Geospatial Technology - http://www.jason.org/digital_library/9575.aspx Integrative Sciences Shark Runners - http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/sharkweek/shark-runners/shark-runners-hq.html (Players take on the role of sharkrunners: daring and adventurous marine biologists who seek to learn as much as possible about sharks through advanced observation techniques.) Energy City - http://www.jason.org/digital_library/8239.aspx (create a new energy portfolio for a city) Other Jason Project games - http://www.jason.org/public/whatis/games.aspx GenEd Chinese language and culture - http://enterzon.com/ Play the News - http://www.playthenewsgame.com/portal/home.action (Role playing game related to headlines) Bibliobouts - http://bibliobouts.org/
  • Motivation Attention / Engagement Relevance Confidence Satisfaction  Social Games often take place in social environments, involving large distributed communities. These communities have residents, geography, history and cultural norms like their real world counterparts. Experiential Games are inherently experiential giving the user a chance to engage multiple senses, test hypotheses, and judge results. Problem-solving Success in the experience is gained by identifying, proposing, and solving problems. Scenario-based problem solving in the hallmark of virtual experiences. Users/gamers have the chance to master this skill through practice; whether trying to defeat a "Boss", solve a math equation, or coordinate a team of fire-fighters. Research Many games and simulations require the use of prior knowledge to filter new information, and apply it to a new situation. The gamer is often required to read and seek out new information (in the experience or real world) to master the game.
  • This was put together by a graduate student – Nancy Konopka for a presentation on games and simulations for learning It is yet another representation of how games support learning principles and educational outcomes
  • Games allow a “safe environment” for learners to role-play, meet challenges, experiment with solutions, and reflect on the outcomes of their actions.   Learning outcomes data show that playing games stimulates changes in the brain that promote learning.   Although critics say it has been slow in coming, there is now a growing body of recent evidence demonstrating that game-based learning has a significant positive influence on K-12 test scores. Games are readily adaptable to the learning of 21 st Century Competencies, including critical thinking, teamwork, problem solving, collaboration and information literacy. The learning ROI from games is also impacted/connected to the way we’re learning the brain works. Brain Based Research Brain plasticity (5-10 years) – before then thought that the brain was rigid and that you had an infinite amount of brain cells 2008 study: five days of learning technology showed physical evidence of a rewired brain. Continuous partial attention causes stress and an addictive outcome occurs. The brain begins to thrive on perpetual connectivity. Eventual results in brain strain (errors in work, judgment). In learning, this is somewhat relative to cognitive load (not overloading working memory so that schema acquisition and building can occur). Cognitive load theory more related to use of media and screen design. This brain strain is not as prevalent with games (well-designed games) Well designed games engage multiple senses and multiple intelligences that address the need for social elements in learning, a balance between leveling and completion and time for consolidation (reflection)
  • Learning Design This concept that the brain can get overwhelmed is accounted for in game design by leveling. There are two design concepts related to leveling that we can apply to learning design to improve our learning ROI. Flow: Combination and balance of use of existing skills (ability) with acquiring new skills (challenge) that keeps the person engaged. Otherwise, if something is too challenging it’s frustrating. If it’s too easy, it’s boring. Goal: stay on the line or a little above or a little below. Cycles of Expertise: Learners practicing skills until they are nearly automatic, then having those skills fail that cause the learners to think again and learn new skills. (Pacing) Analogous to riding a bike. When you’re learning or experiencing something new you’re biking up hill. When you’re using something you know you’re biking down hill. An example of these strategies in a game would be: 1 st Level = pretty easy (Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?) 2 nd Level = knowledge + some new challenges 3 rd Level = knowledge, but need to apply it a little faster 4 th Level = knowledge + some new challenges Final Level = Cumulative application (really, really hard, but really fun and engaging) How is most learning structured? Module 1: new stuff Module 2: more new stuff Module 3: more new stuff Module 4: more new Module 5: Summary Assessment: too easy What’s important? In an unpaced model everything is new and everything is important . . . So nothing is. In a pacing model it’s easier to pick out the new stuff and change your attention when it occurs. Purpose of talking about brain strain/ cognitive load and how well-designed games and simulations address these issues is to consider these techniques in all learning situations. We can improve learning ROI by implementing game and simulation techniques whether or not the learning solution is considered a “game” or “simulation”
  • There are a variety of studies about the effectiveness of games for learning, but this is still a fairly young field. There is much more research and activity needed, but all indications are that games and simulations are powerful tools for learning. http://vgalt.com/2009/10/13/reading-comprehension-as-a-transmedial-sub-medial-trait/
  • http://www.medgadget.com/archives/2008/08/studies_show_benefits_of_video_game_playing.html http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2008/08/video-games.aspx American Psychological Association In one paper, Fordham University psychologist Fran C. Blumberg, PhD, and Sabrina S. Ismailer, MSED, examined 122 fifth-, sixth- and seventh-graders' problem-solving behavior while playing a video game that they had never seen before to show that playing video games can improve cognitive and perceptual skills. As the children played the game, they were asked to think aloud for 20 minutes. Researchers assessed their problem-solving ability by examining the types of cognitive, goal-oriented, game-oriented, emotional and contextual statements they made. In another paper, researchers Constance Steinkuehler, PhD, and Sean Duncan, MA, of the University of Wisconsin at Madison looked at how game-based learning can supplement textbooks and science labs in fostering scientific thinking. They analyzed a random sample of nearly 2,000 discussion posts in November 2006 where participants talked about various game-related topics. Scientific thinking can be learned in virtual worlds, said Duncan. The majority of participants (86 percent) shared their knowledge to solve problems and more than half the participants (58 percent) used systematic and evaluative processes indicative of scientific reasoning. "These forums illustrate how sophisticated intellectual practices to improve game play mimic actual scientific reasoning," said Duncan. "Gamers are openly discussing their strategies and thinking, creating an environment in which informal scientific reasoning practices are being learned by playing these online video games."
  • I’ll quote you some statistics from one older study: http://seayj.people.cofc.edu/cb/findsim.html?referrer=webcluster& Examined 68 studies directly or indirectly(in reviews conducted before 1984) on the difference between simulations/games and conventional instruction in student performance. 36 (56%) found no difference 22 (32%) found differences favoring simulations/games 5 (7%) favored simulations/games, but their controls were questionable 3 (5%) found differences favoring conventional instruction 2.) Seven out of eight studies involving math found that the use of games is superior to traditional classroom instruction for improving math achievement. Subject matter areas where very specific content can be targeted and objectives precisely defined are more likely to show beneficial effects for gaming. 6.) Simulations/games show greater retention over time than conventional classroom instruction. 7.) In 12 of 14 studies, students reported more interest in simulation and game activities than in more conventional activities. Overall Benefits: Documented results indicating great improvements in performance Practice multiple times Make more mistakes Try more options There are several attributes of games that are particularly useful for learning such as (a) contextual bridging, (b) high time-on-task, (c) motivation and goal orientation, even after failure, (d) providing learners with cues, hints and partial solutions to keep them progressing, (e) personalization of learning, and (f) infinite patience.
  • There are several attributes of games that are particularly useful for learning such as (a) contextual bridging, (b) high time-on-task, (c) motivation and goal orientation, even after failure, (d) providing learners with cues, hints and partial solutions to keep them progressing, (e) personalization of learning, and (f) infinite patience.
  • Quest to Learn School
  • Quest to Learn School
  • Clark Aldrich - The Complete Guide to Simulations and Serious Games  James Paul Gee – What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy http://www.uoregon.edu/~moursund/Books/Games/games.html
  • http://games.eun.org/upload/GIS_HANDBOOK_EN.PDF
  • LEEF is an annual event sponsored by the university that focuses on the changing landscape of technology in learning and entertainment. It is a face-to-face opportunity for us to connect with and learn from some of the leading game and simulation designers and developers throughout the nation. This event was what first attracted Quest Diagnostics to Harrisburg University and me being here today to talk with you about games and simulations for training. LEEF 2010 planning is underway. We’ll be releasing more information throughout the fall.
  • Game maker http://www.yoyogames.com/gamemaker/windows http://www.sploder.com/ http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/projects/kodu/ http://vodpod.com/watch/1846957-kodu-video-tour http://www.gametrailers.com/video/ces-09-microsoft/44115 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jg_jeN5AcPs Scratch http://scratch.mit.edu/ http://info.scratch.mit.edu/Video_Tutorials
  • Q&A
  • apetroski.wikispaces.com http://learnev.blogspot.com/
  • Playing to Learn: Games and Simulations in the Classroom 12:30 PM - 3:30 PM Promote active learning, impact student motivation and improve learning outcomes through the use of games and simulations in the classroom. Technology expands the opportunities for learning through games by increasing the interaction, expanding the audience and tracking the results. This session provides an overview of using games and simulations for learning, including an exploration of the impact of games and simulations, the types of games and simulations and considerations for using games and simulations in the classroom. Off-the-shelf games and game templates that can be implemented immediately will be reviewed and simple tools for creating your own games will also be explored. Mainly elementary and middle school teachers Mainly reading and math, but also science, history/social studies, communication
  • Playing to Learn: Using Games and Simulations in the Classroom 07-19-11

    1. 1. Playing to Learn: Using Games and Simulations in the Classroom IU 8 Tuesday, July 19, 2011
    2. 2. <ul><li>Andy Petroski </li></ul><ul><li>Director of Learning Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Professor of Learning Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Harrisburg University </li></ul><ul><li>apetroski.wikispaces.com </li></ul>Harrisburg University LTMS CAE&LT
    3. 4. Virtusphere <ul><li>LEEF 2010 High Tech Demo ( www.goleef.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>Innerspace </li></ul><ul><li>Outerspace </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Tours / Walkthroughs </li></ul><ul><li>Data Visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul>
    4. 5. At what stage of using game- and simulation-based learning are you?
    5. 6. Benefits Uses Types Define
    6. 7. -ASTD Games Simulations “ A structured activity in which two or more participants compete within constraints of rules to achieve an objective.” “ An operational model, using selected components, of a real or hypothetical process, mechanism or system.”
    7. 8. Games & Simulations Problem-Based Learning Activities Serious Games Immersive Learning Simulations Learning Games Mini-Games Educational Games
    8. 11. Genres Games Hybrid Simulations <ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul><ul><li>3D shooter </li></ul><ul><li>Card or Board </li></ul><ul><li>Adventure </li></ul><ul><li>Driving or Flying </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy Game </li></ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplayer </li></ul><ul><li>Augmented Reality </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate Reality </li></ul><ul><li>Branching Stories </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Spreadsheets </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Labs </li></ul><ul><li>Mini-games </li></ul>
    9. 12. Game Simulation
    10. 13. Games in Education
    11. 14. Games for Formative Assessment
    12. 15. Categories for Learning Simple Serious Software Physical Soft Skill Cause/Effect Game Simulation
    13. 16. Games in Education Students Games Effective Teaching & Learning Strategies Improved Learning Outcomes 21 st Century Skills Educators
    14. 18. Games in Education
    15. 20. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Challenge Skill Flow Channel
    16. 22. American Psychological Association <ul><li>Examined 122 fifth-, sixth- and seventh-graders' problem-solving behavior while playing a video game. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzed a random sample of nearly 2,000 discussion posts in November 2006 where participants talked about various game-related topics. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;These forums illustrate how sophisticated intellectual practices to improve game play mimic actual scientific reasoning,&quot; said Duncan. &quot;Gamers are openly discussing their strategies and thinking, creating an environment in which informal scientific reasoning practices are being learned by playing these online video games.&quot; </li></ul>
    17. 23. Studies on the difference between simulations/games and conventional instruction in student performance <ul><li>36 (56%) found no difference </li></ul><ul><li>22 (32%) found differences favoring simulations/games </li></ul><ul><li>5 (7%) favored simulations/games, but their controls were questionable </li></ul><ul><li>3 (5%) found differences favoring conventional instruction </li></ul>
    18. 24. Game Attributes & Learning <ul><li>(a) contextual bridging , (b) high time-on-task , </li></ul><ul><li>(c) motivation and goal orientation , even after failure , </li></ul><ul><li>(d) providing learners with cues, hints and partial solutions to keep them progressing , </li></ul><ul><li>(e) personalization of learning , and </li></ul><ul><li>(f) infinite patience </li></ul>
    19. 25. Quest to Learn <ul><li>Supports a dynamic curriculum that uses the underlying design principles of games to create academically challenging, immersive, game-like learning experiences for students. Games and other forms of digital media also model the complexity and promise of “systems.” Understanding and accounting for this complexity is a fundamental literacy of the 21st century. </li></ul><ul><li>6th-12th grade school launched in fall 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>http://q2l.org/ </li></ul>
    20. 26. Gamestar Mechanic
    21. 29. <ul><li>June 16-17, 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Harrisburg University </li></ul><ul><li>Games . Simulations . Virtual Worlds </li></ul><ul><li>www.goleef.com </li></ul><ul><li>Keynotes . Case Studies . High Tech Demos </li></ul>
    22. 30. <ul><li>Gamemaker </li></ul><ul><li>Sploder </li></ul><ul><li>Kodu </li></ul><ul><li>Scratch </li></ul>Entry-Level Game Dev Tools
    23. 31. <ul><li>Living Free Financial Management Game </li></ul><ul><li>Math Buddies </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneur Board Game </li></ul><ul><li>Super Stu and the Grammar Gremlin </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Bias Awareness for Cultural Voices </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat Nardak: Network Password Rules Game </li></ul><ul><li>Roaming the Halls </li></ul>LTMS 603
    24. 33. <ul><li>Andy Petroski </li></ul><ul><li>Director of Learning Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Professor of Learning Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Harrisburg University </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>http://www.linkedin.com/pub/andy-petroski/0/176/315 http://www.ning.com/andypetroski http://learnev.blogspot.com/ apetroski
    25. 34. Playing to Learn: Using Games and Simulations in the Classroom IU 8 Tuesday, July 19, 2011

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